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1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Boboc

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The “Pragmatic Turn” in Actual Thinking . The study of a pragmatic dimension to semiotics appears only late in the history of the discipline. „Pragmatic” seems the last one called into the dispute of signs. The study capitalizes on semiotics and the theory of action, with the distinction operated between „pragmatism” and„practical” matters within this philosophical discipline. The theory of the speech acts is investigated and related to the perspectives opened in the semiotics in order to highlight further avenues for research.

2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Teresa Castelão-Lawless

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What counts as scientific ideology for Canguilhem and Kuhn is functionally distinct. However, in this article I argue that metaphysical and other non-scientificbeliefs brought about by scientists into their research traditions and that Kuhn sees as generating scientific change coincide closely with Canguilhem’s conception of scientific ideology. Kuhn failed to describe clearly those ideological and metaphysical elements influencing the work of science. He chose to focus on psychological factors intrinsic to paradigms and present in paradigm shifts and in scientific revolutions and also in the internal mechanisms of science itself such as the discovery process. Canguilhem triangulated scientific ideologies with the traditional demarcation criterion between science and non-science and with the intertwining of practice, theory, and external (social) beliefs in scientific thought while distancing himself from the psychological dynamic in science characteristic in Kuhn’s work. Their views are complementary.

3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Fernando Cipriani

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A socioanthropological debate in the 17th Century. The Myth of the Good Savage. The myth of the Good Savage was born and developed especially in the17th century, but it already had its ethnological bases in the geographical discoveries of the 15th century and in the colonial conquests. The French Enlightenment questions about the Occidental civilization and the moral principles that were the bases of the colonial expansions of the European powers. The cultural debate, extended by the anthropological science, was directed to the attempt to knowledge the submissive populations who became the colonial populations. Any kind of reduction of the social debate to the superiority of the Occidental human being is progressively surpassed by the comparison of two worlds, initially opposed and than more and more close to one another: the civilization world and the primitive one. In Voltaire’s stories the moment of the overtaking of the natural state, specific to the savage, is more important, through one necessary acculturation, while in the autobiographic and traveling stories, under the impulse of the ethnical similarities reminded by Rousseau and by the anthropological philosophers, is asserted the equality of people’s rights. In this way the natural condition is „sweetened” by the knowledge of the nature and of its laws, which is inspired from the recognition of the equality between social condition and birth. To fallow the laws of nature means to surpass the social conventions and to give back to the civilized man the naturalness of his own feelings, the innocence and the purity of his customs. In the rational way, to fallow the laws of the nature means the reconciliation between Rousseau’s principles and Voltaire’s ones. In this way the paradoxes of the civilized world and the ones of the primitive world are eliminated through the integration of the two in one united concept.

4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Mobeen Shahid

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In Ideen II Edmund Husserl delineates the three spheres which constitute the reality which human being is and this way introduces us to a different anthropologywhich is fruit of his phenomenological analysis. The tri-partite analysis of the human subjectivity, in Ideen II provides us with an anthropology which is a sound foundation for a new psychology (phenomenological psychology) where the analyses of the lived-experiences is an instrument to understand the psychic acts. Husserl after having known the psychology, a science of the subjectivity and which is interrelated with the corporeality, proposes a psychology which is in connection with the nature and only in this connection it can be realized fully. In this way the concept of purely phenomenological psychology serves also to clarify what the fundamentally transcendental science i.e. transcendental phenomenology is. The phenomenologicaly transcendental psychology developed by Husserl is completely a new science of consciousness in respect to all the other historical forms of psychology and other sciences which study consciousness. As phenomenological psychology moves in its natural attitude towards the world (Welteinstellung), it has access to all the positive sciences and in this way it can be called science of all sciences.

5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Ioan Alexandru Tofan

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This article discusses the response which Hegel gives in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy to a problem which is first posed in his early writings. The problem is that of the possibility to comprehend the Absolute, the Infinity („Life” is the term Hegel uses in his Early Writings) using the reflexion as instrument. The later response is to see the concept (Begriff) in his speculative sense (in fact the form of absolute reflexion) as a spiritual, historical entity and so, as tradition of representation (Vorstellung). The tradition of a thought is what marks the passage from dominative, intelectual thinking to integrative, reasonable thinking.

6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Ovidiu Balan

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In this article I argue that attendant on the acceptance of the idea of an immortal soul is a legitimate question concerning the soul's status before the individual's birth and after its death. Whether the Greeks were the originators of the doctrine of the transmigration of souls or this was an influence from another culture is still open to debate.

7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Angela Ales Bello

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In the study of the soul between psychology and phenomenology in Edith Stein works it becomes clearer that it is only phenomenology that really comes to gripswith the question of psychic causality by correlating the two moments and it is therefore only phenomenology that can respond to Hume’s objections while yetremaining on his selfsame terrain. It is very important to distinguish between psychology and phenomenology and also to clarify the relationship between psyche and consciousness; there is thus reproposed the distinction already made by Husserl, who stressed that when one sets out to look for the causes that determine psychic life, they must not be sought in life feelings (Lebensgefühle) but rather in the „modes” of a life force (Lebenskraft) that is announced in them. All this is indicated here within limits because psychology in itself is undoubtedly not a science of the spirit, though the psychic states, on the other hand, will not be validly understood unless and until one arrives, as is demonstrated in the essay under consideration, at the motivation and therefore the spiritual sphere. We would say that our body is animated by a psyche and further enlivened by the spirit.

8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma

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Among other modalities of arts” approach, phenomenological apparatus offers us a fruitful one in the endeavour to disclose part of the rich and in-depthmeanings that art in general unfolds through its products. Here, we are especially interested in phenomenology as a style of philosophizing and as a method of analysis, able to open new dimensions to the process of interpretation and comprehension the peculiar living of man in relation with arts. There are some paradigms that have been acknowledged by phenomenologists within the topics of dwelling upon the fullness of artistic logos in its potential of life experiencing, finally. In this essay we try to point out part of phenomenology”s opportunities to scrutinize, in an appropriate way, art as a significant creative phenomenon; and thus to reveal much more about an ideal essence communicating a fundamental order of beingness to which man has access.

9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Gloria Vergara

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The Aesthetic Experience in Roman Ingarden’s thinking . In this article we study the ideas of the Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden, as an essential key inthe discussion on literary reception. The notion of "aesthetic experience" is revised, especially in The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art. Ingarden begins aesthetic discussion, trying to answer two fundamental questions: How is the literary work structured? and Which procedure will lead to an understanding of the literary art work of art? These questions, besides serving in his defense against psychologism and positivism of his time, also help him develop his two most popular works in Spanish: The Literary Work of Art and The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art, in which the Polish philosopher clarifies the principles that of the Reception Theory. Nevertheless, the importance of the aesthetic experience in the linguistic and phenomenology dimensions of the literary text is only understood when we study both works. Ingarden, as his translator to Spanish, Gerald Nyenhuis recognizes, presupposes in his second book the first one where he performs a constant trip from ontology to phenomenology in the literary work of art. It is precisely in this search where he nails his concept of aesthetic experience that we study today in relation with other concepts, such as the aesthetic attitude, the pre-aesthetic knowledge, the role of the aesthetic values and the aesthetic object.

10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Traian D. Stănciulescu

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To understand – intuitively and analytically both – that man is a „being of light” created as a perfect „face and alikeness” and, implicitly, as a becoming measure of the cosmic „wave patterns”, is the main purpose of the present paper. To recuperate the language of the religion by the privilege of a new „living fields” science (biophotonics) means to realize rationally the millenary expectancy of the ESSENTIAL UNITY: man, cosmos, and divinity, harmoniously together.

11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
David Cornberg

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From the Greek satyr to the American Mickey Mouse and from the Chinese dragon to the Egyptian Sphinx, animals and animal/humans have come throughhuman imagination into myth, legend and story. This combination or fusion of animal and human in literature presents a double signification. At the same time that our attention goes to the animality of the human, we may also entertain the human(al)ity of the animal. Besides blending of physical and psychological characteristics, these ancient and modern characters of world texts may embed authentic experiences of communion or communication between humans and animals. The texts may be understood as signifying the limits of both the human and the animal and the possibility of the humanimal. Humanimality signifies the fusion of human and animal which dissolves the ordinary dualism of human subject and animal object and allows for intersubjectivity unmarked by specific biological limitations. This kind of intersubjectivity occurs in the contact of communication and is often an occasion for awe on the part of the human if not of the animal. We may understand such awesome communication as imitation, non-verbal cooperation, and as teaching and learning. Three poems by the author, reproduced in the Appendix, “The Ravens Fly Yet,” “Neighbors,” and “The Lesson,” provide the literary fields in which humanimal phenomena may appear.

12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Kiymet Selvi

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Science and technology have significant roles in life. Most of the researches and discussions about science education are related to development of sciencecurriculum and science education in school. Science curriculum must be developed based on student and society needs, scientific and technological developments in the field of science and educational science. The aims of science curriculum should reflect these elements given above. The aims of science curriculum also refer to changing philosophy of education. In this study, the results of the two studies, which were conducted with 314 primary school class teachers and science teachers, and literature reviews are discussed under the heading of "Future aims of science curriculum for primary school”.

13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Nancy Mardas Billias

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This essay examines the itinerary of the word in translation. How does the process of translation unfold? When a work is translated, what is lost, what is gained,what is left behind, and what is carried forward? Is there some quality peculiar to poetic language that makes translation more difficult – or easier? In this essay I articulate the stages that I go through when translating a poem. The work is heuristic in part, but rooted in Heidegger’s essays on Hölderlin and Rilke.

14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Richard L. Lanigan

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The paper is a paradigmatic presentation of what the new science of communicology represents: the semiotic and phenomenological study of humandiscourse and the critical study of discourse and practice both, an interaction of communication, mass communications, popular culture, public relations, advertising, marketing, linguistics, discourse analysis, political economy, institutional analysis, organization of urban and rural spaces, ergonomics, body culture, clinical practice, health care, constructions of disease, health, and rehabilitation, human factors, signage, and so forth. Communicology is the human science research result in which validity and reliability are logic constructs based in the necessary and sufficient conditions of discovered systems (codes), whether eidetic (based in consciousness) or empirical (based in experience).