Cover of Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy
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articles in english

1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Marin Aiftincă

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Starting again of thesis that the value appear to us like value in self, transcendental, and value for somebody, this paper enlarging upon idea that the value is object of knowledge but different of any others objects of the reality. The knowledge of value involve a emotional constituent and other rational constituent. Advancing the judgement of value, the feeling of value is essential for detection and to converted the being of value into reality of life and culture. This part of value feeling do not put in danger the unity and eternity of value and it is very important for the knowledge and the intercultural communication in the world.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Lydia B. Amir

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Should philosophers address the needs of their societies? If the answer is affirmative, and if today's needs are being inadequately answered within the New Age movement for lack of viable alternatives, philosophers' minimal response could be teaching critical thinking outside the academe, and maximal response would be providing relevant wisdom for the world. The first option requires construing logic and epistemology as practical fields. The second requires reforming part of Philosophy as social thinking which provides relevant wisdom for the world. I expose here the maximal response based on an analysis of society's needs forcosmology and spirituality, the New Age Movement's role in providing for those needs, its dangers and imperviousness to criticism, and philosophers' possible responsibility for and interest in answering the needs for a synoptic vision.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Dhanpat Raj Bhandari

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The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. It should essentially make a man pious, perfect and truthful. The welfare of humanity lies neither in scientific or technological advancements nor in acquisition of material comforts. The main function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership founded on courage, intellectual integrity and a sense of values. Since education is a powerful instrument of social change and human progress, it is also a powerful tool to cultivate values in an individual. Therefore all the educational institutes have greater responsibility to impart learning and cultivation of values through education. For inculcating values many educationists have suggested different ideas such as : provision of value based curriculum, designing special orientation program for teachers, value based foundation courses, publication of literature based on values, necessity to develop code of conduct for teachers and students, inculcation of philosophical viewtowards life among teachers and students. Further to cultivate values among the new generations we are to design a curriculum from out of our accumulated cultural heritage.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Ying jian Jia

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Though the globalization of economics has provided us a posttraditional perspective to understand the traditional culture, it doesn’t mean that tradition has lost its special value of existence. In order to interpret Chinese traditional culture on the background of globalization, we need to re-identify its value properly to realize the combination of traditional spirit and modern idea, and then we could make the modern transformation of Chinese traditional culture possible. During the process of traditional culture’s modern transformation, the most important thing is to make the choice of seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
T. J. Mawson

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I argue for the rational inescapability of value objectivism, the thesis that at least some normative appraisal is not simply a matter of how, subjectively, we feel about the world; it is a matter of how, objectively, the world ought to be. I do this via a two-stage argument, the first stage of which is based around a thought experiment, the second stage of which is based on how those who reject the argument of the first stage must present their doing so to themselves if they are to consider themselves rationally justified. I sketch a way in which this argument might lead one rationally to favour moral objectivism.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Trong Chuan Nguyen

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In present global period, what help men to overcome difficulties, challenges, to emancipate them from defiance and suffering of their life, to meet their long-term needs of very day live are not only economy, modern technique and high technology, but including philosophy. Philosophy helps men to find out the key not only for all-time challenges, but also for brand new problems caused by process of globalization. Philosophy either helps men to realize their real status, to have worthy life-style of human or helps them to decide purpose and ideal of their life; those in turn take part in changing reality in order just to serve them. In addition, in present global period, philosophy also assists men in choosing correct orientation for their action, to consolidate their determination in action, as well as to evaluate accurately current changes and to give them suggestion of how to go and what direction to solve problems facing their life. In the process of Doi Moi in Vietnam today, philosophy has been realizing such enormous roles.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Asokananda Prosad

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Belief in miracles exists more or less in all religions in all ages. The Upanishads assert that the experience of religious insight and transformation is the only "miracle" worth considering, but popular Hinduism attributes miraculous powers to the ascetic yogis. Though Buddha Gautama deprecated his own miraculous powers as devoid of spiritual significance, accounts of his miraculous birth and life were later woven into his legend and into those of later Buddhist saints. The New Testament records miracles of healing and other wonders performed by Jesus. Miracles also attest to the holiness of Christian saints. Muhammadrenounced miracles as a matter of principle (the Quran was the great miracle), but his life was later invested with miraculous details. Muslim popular religion, particularly under the influence of Sufism, abounds in miracles and wonder-working saints. Although ‘values’ speak about ideals and principles we are supposed to follow, it enumerates the standard of our mind we develop in the light of so called miracles and what it truly stands for.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
C. L. Sheng

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“Career value” is the name of a kind of value I used (or perhaps I coined) in my classification of value according to good things in life based on the law of nonreplaceability. I classify value into seven classes: (1) health value, (2) sentimental value, (3) economic value1, (4) belief value, (5) environmental value, (6) social value, and (7) career value. Career value refers to the extra value of the most important work, which one wants to do and actually does in one’s life time, for oneself. In Section 2, I explain the nature of career value, which is different from the natures of all other values. In Section 3, I discuss various career values themselves. Career value has several different forms, depending on the nature and size of career. Finally, I conclude that, except for economic value3 , which isunsuitable and unreasonable to be a career value, the pursuit of any kind of a nonmaterial career value is a good thing and conforms to the maximization of social utility in utilitarianism.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Andrew Sneddon

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Philosophers have long studied the nature of happiness and, as a consequence, have made recommendations about how to achieve it. The present paper argues that perhaps this has been a mistake. Empirical studies of happiness have been yielding important results in recent years, the implication of which is that happiness is more complex than philosophers have suspected. The crucial point is this: although very abstract and very individual-specific things can be said about happiness, there is nothing substantial that can be said about happiness in general. For practical yet general recommendations about how to achievehappiness, such an intermediate level of generality is necessary. Since it is not available, no general recommendations about happiness are possible.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Kelly Sorensen

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One of the factors that contributes to an agent’s praiseworthiness and blameworthiness - his or her moral worth – is effort. On the one hand, agents who act effortlessly seem to have high moral worth. On the other hand, agents who act effortfully seem to have high moral worth as well. I explain this pair of intuitions and explore the contour of our views about cases in between them. This paper uses conceptual graphs for clarity and, in additional work I have done on value theory, as arguments. Conceptual graphs reflect a way of doing philosophy that is new and powerful, as reflected in work over the past several decades by Derek Parfit, Shelly Kagan, Larry Temkin, and Thomas Hurka.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Christopher S. Taylor

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The question of concentration, or to use a word more in tune with the true nature of this essay, the heart, of this work is to explore the constructs surrounding the very nature and essence of the human heart. By heart I mean not the organ of flesh and blood, or the muscle that pumps life through out our corporal beings. But rather I mean to speak of an emotion that exists in parallel to the spirit or soul of the human cognitive existence. I have chosen the title of this essay for a very specific reason, being that love and the human heart are two different concepts that I find to be closely related and essential for the other to exist. However, I findthat they are different and should be treated as such, for this reason I have given this essay a two-fold thesis. In that its main function will be to incorporate the idea of love with the ideologies of the human heart but also that they should be discussed separately. To most accurately address these points there will be three sections to this essay; the first will be an address on love and its meaning and purpose, the second will be in regards to the mystics of the heart, while the third will be a link between the two and act as a bridge from the psychological emotions of love to the physical and real emotions of man.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Viktor Tchouechov

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An argument to love is a verbal construction, containing appeal to human emotions and feelings. According to philosophical and rhetoric traditions, the argument is a very important means of convincing and (or) persuasion and value’scommunication. The argument to love bases on optimum internal unity of authority (and an argument to authority), good, friendship, beauty and desire of human. The argument to love demands, at least, a minimal positive value audience’s reaction to itself. An audience response to an argument to love is in direct proportion to its verbal expression. The argument to love depends on common world-view, national mentality as well as on an intellectual tradition where we are.

articles in french

13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Pierre Nzinzi

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La dichotomie fait/valeur caractérise le « problème de Weber », qui a abouti, avec le positivisme du Cercle de Vienne, au confinement de l'éthique dans le nonsens, c'est-à-dire de ce côté où l'on devrait absolument rien dire, selon l'interdit wittgensteinien, vraisemblablement dicté par Parménide. La reprise critique de la question consistera ici à la poser en termes de rapports entre logique et éthique, la première regroupant des faits (divers) qui communiquent avec les valeurs, qu'ils peuvent induire, du reste, le but étant de continuer à raturer la fameuse neutralité axiologique, exigée par le positivisme, de Weber à Marx. Larature sera saisie ici sous les traits suivants : La raison est originairement politique ; La rationalisme et la culture de la paix ; L'idée d'une « morale immanente » : le cas de la biologie ; L'avantage critique de l'Occident..

articles in spanish

14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Manuel Liz

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In this paper, we analyze a way of valuing positively something which rarely has been taking into account in the literature: to value positively something because it could be valued positively by someone else. The main features of that way of valuing something are really very suggesting. Here, we would not have instrumental valuations, nor valuations directly sensitive to intrinsic values either. However, there would be cases in which valuations made in that way would make us able to detect things that can be valued in an inconditional way. When we imagine or conceive what could be value positively, our motivational structures face us with something that is valued without evaluative conditions and, therefore, with something that is a good candidate to have an intrinsic value.

articles in russian

15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Kenul Bunyadzade

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As a human being possesses dual creation, certain reasons and conditions can oppose his inner and outside worlds. Giving preference one side to other, and to turn another into slavery enhance the syndrome of imbalance which inherent him in birth. To make harmony between them and their complementarities perfect the human being. This also emphasizes the necessity of parallel development of rational and irrational thinking and their complementarities. A human being is perfect in birth and he is the only being who is able to understand his perfection. As it is reflected in Holy Books that the material world is a form of test, and the good and the evil return us. As it is seems that this material world is only the mean of choice in spiritual way. This choice is of the man. The man canchoose light or fire. Everybody understands his inferiority in his own and to solve it differently: it might be material things, divine love or science. What is the truth? It is the soul that defines it, if we can listen to it.
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Gennady Golovnikh

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It is possible to pick out a number of tendencies in axiology development. Among them we can see the disciplinary invasion of axiology into the sphere of agathological (agathon - greek - the Good) knowledge. The invasion tendency is connected with the definite understanding of the value nature and with the including non-value content into the axiological sphere. Value and agathon (the good) have different significance. In philosophy of values there are two axiologies: creative and noncreative. In creative axiology the value world is the world created by the free and reasonable subject. All the history of agathon (the good) studying allows for picking it (agathon) out as a subject for special research in agathology.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Потапов Г.Г. Украина

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The author has been attempting in a new way to evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism on a basis of a sinergetically-axiological paradigm. There is “a notion of sum” in the process of research of the topic need to understand as the sinergetically-axiological paradigm. This “notion of sum” has given us a possibility to look from above of a modern level of science and in a new way to systematically evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism since Homo habilis to Homo postmodernist, including epochs of Homo crectus and Homo sapiens. This paradigm of values makes it possible to approach in a new way the problems such as the mythological epoch of humanity and the period oforigin and predominance of World religions, at the time when essence of the leading philosophy had been religious ideology and theological values and, starting since, Renaissance until rise of the classical science, merely at that time when the scientific philosophy had just begun to dominate in the philosophy of human thought. The sinergetically-axiological paradigm could claim to the evristical philosophical comprehension of the key problems of past, present and future.

articles in chinese

18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Zhenping Hu

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The formulation of “putting people first” as core values in contemporary China had its profound realistic context, witnessed a zigzag historical course, and cherished a Marxist theoretical origin. Against the background of developing market economy, the looming large of “putting money first”, “putting property first”, or “putting officials first” etc., it came into being by meeting China’s actual social demand, deriving yet elevated from the viewpoints of administrative science. It gained powerful impetus in the reflection of “cultural revolution”, and through the practice of reform and opening up. Meanwhile, it is also a spiraling process ofideological emancipation. Its formulation rested upon a unification of theory and practice, benefited not just from a continuously deepened understanding of Marxist theory about humanity, but from an innovative application of that theory in face of a new situation and practice.