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articles in english

1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Liliya Abrarova

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In rapid growth of segnicita, taking place in the modern milestone in the history of development of a society, there is a redistribution of hierarchy of arranging of cultural categories and the meaningfulness, accompanied entropy in consciousness of people and functioning of occurring new simulacres within a society. Thevery image of the world as the semantic substituent to modeled object plays a significant role in a choosing of reference points in communicative space, in particular in political culture. A human being deals with cultural signs, exchanging, absorbing, interpreting and generating them in infinitely growing quantity. Paradigmatic shift aside communicatively-significant relations specifies necessity of a reconstruction reference, that is of actually human personal sense. The person is alienated in new sign dehumanizated environments of culture. Thus, between direct participants of the communications there is a seductive opportunity to take root to socalled intermediaries. The media spaces, inspiring false valuable reference points in artificial way, play the most promoting role in it. Hence, it is necessary to reconsider in cultural-philosophical sense the existing representations in understanding of cultural grasp of the reality both by societies as a whole, and the separate nations. In the given report the new approach to the model of cultural grasp of the reality is described, viewed by the researcher as crossing ofcognitive-sign and anthropological levels.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Georgia Apostolopoulou

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Philosophical anthropology, as Helmuth Plessner has explored it, vindicates its relative priority towards ethics, because it can set out the anthropological prerequisites for considering the moral subject as the embodied person. This claim, however, is still an open question. Walter Schulz has argued that the prevalence of science in contemporary life brings ethics to the fore and forces philosophical anthropology to an auxiliary exploration of ‘leading figures of thehuman’. Jürgen Habermas endorses Plessner’s exploration of the issue of the body, in order to oppose biotechnological naturalism. Thus, he enlarges his discourse on ethics through the ethics of the human species by defining the moral agent as the embodied person. Nevertheless, philosophical anthropology is a broader theoretical endeavour that cannot be reduced to ethics.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Marina F. Bykova

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The paper focuses on Hegel’s concept of Bildung and its significance for his account of the concrete subjectivity. It is pointed out that it would be a misinterpretation of Hegel's account of Bildung to reduce it either to a merely individual intellectual event (education, narrowly construed) or to economic production. In Hegel, Bildung is a real historical process that takes place within the life of any individual, any culture and (in principle) even the human race. That is a concrete universal process in which we human beings necessary participate and through which we become aware of ourselves and our natural and social environment. The link Hegel sets between the process of individual enculturation and Bildung of “cosmic” spirit indicates the essential interdependence of individual and universal in social and cultural life. Just as there is noindividuality without the individual’s participation in the universal social and cultural life, there cannot be achieved any universal context without activity of the individuals. In the process of enculturation, the individual (here as a collective historical subject,humanity at large) creates culture and at the same time creates himself through culture.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Mark Joseph T. Calano

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The article considers Richard Rorty’s thought on pragmatic religion and meliorism. It begins with Rorty’s critique of theism and Platonism, and his attempt to rehabilitate religion using a pragmatist framework. The article then offers an analysis of Rorty’s “unjustifiable hope”. Here, the author distinguishes the differentsenses of unjustifiable hope. With a tension between the “romantic” and “utilitarian” aspects of this outlook, the paper concludes with the advent of Rorty’s pragmatic religion.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Mark Joseph T. Calano

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This paper analyzes Karl Rahner’s understanding of human freedom and transcendental anthropology. Karl Rahner is one of the most famous Catholic theologian and philosopher of the twentieth century. His transcendental anthropology is a philosophical understanding of the human person grounded in the basic tenets of Christian thought. In relation to this, Rahner speaks of freedom in two ways: categorical and transcendental freedom. By transcendental freedom, Rahner speaks of freedom as an essential capacity constitutive of the human person. By categorical freedom, he refers to the human person’s ability to use the essential capacity of freedom. From this distinction, the author discusses Rahner’s controversial understanding of analogous sin. In here, the author questions the role of freedom and the reality of sin. He concludes by articulating the implications of this understanding of freedom to philosophical anthropology.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Olga Gomilko

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The paper presents the main ideas of systematic research of the phenomenon of the human body as an essential characteristic of human being and the fundamental philosophical concept. It allows one to scrutinize the concept of the human body as a necessary research tool in the humanities. The human body is analyzed in the process of its conceptualization in the history of philosophy, in relation to which its logic and main phases are defined. The paradigms of the understanding of the human body are identified as resomatization strategies of contemporary thinking. It allows one to claim that evolution of philosophy is inalienable from the process of conceptualization of the phenomenon of the human body. Using an ontological grounding of the human body as a key philosophical concept ensures reconciliation of philosophical anthropology and ontology.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Lourdes Gordillo

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In this paper I explain the principle of tolerance in a double aspect, reference to truth and to the individual. Tolerance is diferent from another similar concepts and we analyze some socials paradoxes that the tolerance brings. In the base of tolerance is respect to the truth and to the individual. For that reason, the studyof the concept of respect as the fundament of tolerance is the sustain in which the real solidarity an peace are establish.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Alec Gordon

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The aim of this paper is to consider the vicissitudes of “area studies” from the Second World War to the present focusing eventually on the normative imperative to develop a new paradigm of “planetary thinking.” First an overview of the history of “area studies” will be given from the start in the U.S. during the Second World War in response to the geostrategic imperative for America to know its new geopolitical responsibilities in a world divided by war. This security imperative morphed into the postwar requisite to develop a counterhegemonic strategy against soviet communism in the hot spot parts of Asia, Latin American, and later Africa. The latter military-oriented strategy was added to with research into development and modernization in the third-world through to the boundary displacement of areas studies at the end of the Cold War into the current era of globalization. At this very historical moment of transition a new rationale for area studies emerged in the form of a geoeconomic imperative – both in the U.S. and, with a different gloss, in South Korea in the late 1990s. Second, on the basis of this historical apercu, the argument will be proposed that, given the problem of global warming and the issue‐area of global inequality lurking behind the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals, a pressing contemporary task for philosophy is to make a critical contribution to developing a new planetary perspective for area studies informed by a constitutive philosophical anthropology attendant to the species being of human beings.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Quy Ho Si

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The problem of cultural environment is not new, but the use of the theory on cultural environment is clearly a new approach to the consideration of familiar questions. That is the problem, is it true that the context has become such that man, as an individual, is becoming increasingly smaller, weaker, more tightly defined and restrained, in a society which is steadily developing in the direction of becoming multi-dimensional and ambiguous with its “logic of imposition”? As for the cultural environment, is it true that the part in it where man has no right to choose, the part which he is compelled to adapt to, will grow bigger and bigger than the part each individual, each community can create, build, and amend? More concretely, is it true that the European rationalist and anthropological culture has become too “classical” and “secular,” now getting replaced by a “fast-food culture” or “stewing-pot culture”? Or is it only a “superficial choice” of globalization times? Is the present philosophy too weak, leaving society to the mercy of less-than-clairvoyant logics of life, in which “such environment, such man” is only one of many behavioral logics which are not too bad in modern social relation? Or has the role of philosophy itself changed - the “Flat world” philosophy now deprived of the responsibility to control, regulate, and, as necessary, determine the context, as it was in the past? Base upon reliable qualitative and quantitative datas, thepaper prover that: 1. If natural environment is the regrouping of factors outside the social-human system making conditions necessary for this system to exist and develop, then cultural environment is regrouping of factors inside the social-human system making sufficient conditions for each subsystem of this system to identify itself and progress. 2. Never in the past has the cultural environment in Vietnam been so rich and varied, so dynamic and positive, so encouraging and attractive, with so many opportunities and challenges as is now the case. The degree of richness and diversity, the dynamic and active rhythm of Vietnam’s cultural environment are now enough to foster good ideas and stimulate discovery and creation. But on the flip side, there are still many challenges andattractions, so hopefully every individual, family, and community will become vigilant before the risk of losing the way or making a mistake.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Svetlana Klimova

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Various approaches to civil society research are considered. Two key problems caused by impact of post-modernism are discussed, that are: crises of identification with the society and problems of personal identity. A particular personality crisis that is specific for contemporary Russia is noticed. The crisis is caused by the combination of two factors. They are: social abandonment, atomization and loneliness and total relativism produced by expansion of post-modernism. The second factor influences the Western citizenship as well. That’s why “re-emergence” of civil society is discussed in the Western world, though civil society institute has never died in the Western countries. Personality-oriented civil society is considered to be a prologue for re-emergence of the wholeness that seems to fall apart because of the loss of all universalistic values. The alliance between the heritage of the Russian thinker V. Rozanov and philosophical discourse by M. Foucault is tracked, the latter being a champion of personality-oriented civil society as opposed to “gregarious” politicallystructured one. Rozanov demonstrates his life to us as a process of a personality’s creative work which makes life experience a basis for the creation of universal values. Post-modernism represented by Fucault makes this experience as a basis in the process of the reflexive discourse-analysis this demonstrating his moving away from it. Both authors removed “interdict” from a number of so called "private themes" that had had ambiguous marginalized/sacral status in public discourse. The two thinkers transformed the problem of the “private discourse” into meta-language fit to conceive and describe the essence of the societal life and epoch as a whole. They drew attention to personality-oriented social communications and emergence of new types of societal communities. Both figures are ofa great importance for now-a-days discussions on civil society development in the epoch of a post-modernism. The fact that comparison of their views will contribute to better understanding of the controversies which are inherent in civil society is demonstrated.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Ivan Kolev

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If we take a bird’s-eye view of the history of philosophical ideas and try to assess the place the problems of modality hold in it, it is likely that we will gain the impression that they are not among the priorities of philosophical thinking of the essence of human being. A closer look at some classical theses, however, can provide us with different answers. In § 76 of Critique of Judgement, which is actually “just” a comment on the basic text, Kant explains that “For human reason it is of absolute necessity to distinguish between the possibility and reality of things”. Kant helps us to include modality in the very metaphysical definition of the human being. That is why we can say: human being is a modal being before being “a rational being”, “a social animal” or “homo faber”. In my opinion that “before” should be understood in a strictly metaphysical sense and it should help us to discover a non-trivial basis and principle of philosophical anthropology. It is my thesis that philosophical anthropology should place modality in the very definition of human nature and consider human being as a possibilia entis. We could illustrate the fundamental character of modality by demonstrating that modality is at the basis of constituting time as temporality. In view of this position only the modal being has a time in the sense of temporality. Or, to put it in a different way, we can see in nature only changes, but not temporal phenomena in the strict sense of the concept of time perceived as temporality.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Tronina Larisa

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Here is told about necessity to create new anthropological paradigm based on the ecological approach. The matter is a man in ecological world, and subjects are the phenomena of consciousness, deciding direction to this world. Ecological world differs from physical world. Ecological world is the ontological unity of person and natural world, and it is characterized with combination of all items, events, occurrence in each other. Person’s attitude to the ecological world determines with notion “ecological consciousness”, it describes person’s structural attitude to the world and it has morally value character. The main description of ecological consciousness is its orientation to the ecological world. The methods of new anthropological paradigm are phenomenal and topological approaches, which help to create the complete ecological – anthropological picture of the world.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Egor Makharov

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Any society can have its own worthy place in the history of human civilization, if human problem in it becomes a core, a base of politics and world outlook, economy and culture, morality and science and all main goals of social practice are re-comprehended on this base. In public theory human problem has an important place. For a long time function of philosophy was in elucidation of nature and essence of a man and his attitude to the world. In theory of a man methodological problem about specific features of a man as an object and subject of cognition is starting. Peculiarity of a man as an object of cognition is in complex interweaving of various sides: biological, psychological, and social. Peculiarity of a man as a subject of cognition is expressed in regular increase of his potential intellectual resources.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Alexander V. Maslikhin

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Philosophy distinguishes life in general, inherent in all living things and social life – human life in a society. The last means the numerous relationships of man to nature, society, and all other people. To understand the social life, it should be considered at two levels: first, as everyday life, and, second, as «civilized», much higher according to its contents. The everyday life and the «civilized life» – are interconnected integrally with each other and at the same time are different from each other. Note the primary differences in the most general aspect. The usual everyday life is characterized by thing that people do daily, constantly. It is real, practical, biological-social life of each person: whether a man or a woman, an ordinary man and an eminent person. «The civilized life» is a life of higher level; it is penetrated by the theory, more comprehended and systematized; it is based on scientific and legal laws, philosophical truth and moral categories. Therefore people, on the basis of philosophical and scientific laws, regularities, and tendencies know the ancestral life, evaluate correctly estimate the present life and are able to predict the future life. Laws of everyday and civilized human life have been formulated.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Eckhard Meinberg

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16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Nikolay Omelchenko

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The paper discusses a possibility of integral combination of various approaches for the adequate understanding of human being. In this regard, I analyze the feeling of love in the context of rational cognition and also suggest a secular interpretation of religious images and symbols that allow us to understand well-known heuristic and moral notions in a new light.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Bogdan Popoveniuc

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18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Vera D. Tsvetkova

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The article deals with the differentiation of “novation” and “innovation” notions. Some possible ways of showing the essence of novation phenomenon in philosophical anthropology are given. The definition of novation is worked out. Some reasons for the distinguishing of “novation”, “creation” and “creativity” are displayed. Novation is represented as the way of self-contradiction solution, as an answer to the emerging individual crisis. The analyzed phenomenon is also considered to be a new way of traditional cultural process realization. The ability of a personality selfactualization in modern social and cultural field is related to an individual novational fundamentals manifestation of an individual. The culture of a personality self-actualization is suggested being considered a reproduction of novation.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Rinalds Zembahs

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This paper focuses on Italian philosopher’s Paolo Virno concept of public intellect. He starts from the analysis of emotions and dispositions as they appear in Martin Heidegger’s work Being and Time, and he undertakes na criticism of Heideggerian distinction between fear and anguish/anxiety. Virno argues that, incontemporary world, this distinction is becoming increasingly blurred, insofar as the so-called ‘substantial communities’ tend to disintegrate and human beings become more exposed to the world as such. This exposition to the world makes one feel any concrete fearful situation as rather an anxiety-ridden situation whereuncertainty and endangerment reigns to its utmost. As a rather spontaneous response to this insecurity of ‘not’feeling-at-home’, Virno sees the emergence of the so-called ‘public intellect’ which contains some elementary linguistic structures that appear as collective. Virno sees public intellect as an outcome of ‘not-feeling-at-home’ that, to some degree, forces people to become thinkers as they are made strangers to this world.

articles in spanish

20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Modesto Ortega Umpiérrez, Lucía Martínez Quintana

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Una gran parte de las arquitecturas de la posmodernidad, se presenta como expresiones indecisas y de nomenclatura ambigua. El ejercicio que realizan estos arquitectos, a través de sus edificaciones, refleja con nitidez el cambio provocado por el auge del sector informático y la expansión de la economía global, dos fenómenos entrelazados de manera inextricable, han contribuido a generar una nueva geografía de la centralidad y la marginalidad (Sassen), por eso, el proyecto que reflejan los dibujos de estas arquitecturas, puede ser alterado en su imagen mediante toda suerte de yuxtaposiciones, analogías, contrastes, adulteraciones formales y distorsiones espaciales, porque todo es intercambiable en la nueva realidad espacio-temporal de la telemática; materiales,texturas y formas aleatorias, la imagen pública tiende a excluir el espacio público.