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1. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2

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on universals

2. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Paolo Crivelli

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In On Ideas, Aristotle presents and criticizes an argument for ideas referred to as “the One-over-Many.” On the basis of an uncontroversial fact concerning a group (for instance, the fact that each of the many men is a man), the One-over-Many infers that there is something predicated of each of the members of the group (for instance, that there is something predicated of each of the many men). It then tries to show that the thing predicated in common is an idea. Aristotle criticises this argument by claiming that if it were sound it would show that there are ideas of negations, a result which the Platonists should reject. Since Aristotle himself refuses the existence of “common things,” i.e., Aristotelian universals, of negations, he is committed to the view that the One-over-Many fails to prove the existence not only of ideas, but also of “common things.”
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3. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Gyula Klima

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Under the traditional classification of medieval positions on the issue of universals, both Aquinas and Buridan would have to be deemed to be “conceptualists”: they both deny the existence of mind-independent, Platonic universals (against “realists”), and they both attribute universality primarily to the representative function of our universal concepts, and thus only secondarily to universal names of human languages (against “nominalists”). Yet, Aquinas is quite appropriately classified as a “moderate realist,” and Buridan as an “Ockhamist nominalist.” This paper will argue that what justifies these more refined classifications is the two authors’ radically different conceptions of the representative function of our universal concepts. The paper will show how this difference results in their opposing judgments concerning the demonstrability of the thesis of the immateriality of the human intellect and will reply to Buridan’s main objection to Aquinas’s argument for this thesis, by pointing out the objection’s conflation of merely indifferent, non-distinctive singular representation with genuinely universal intellectual representation. In its conclusion, the paper will briefly gesture at an important contemporary implication of Aquinas’s thesis concerning a metaphysical limitation of artificial intelligence.
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4. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Marco Sgarbi

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The paper deals with the problems of universals in German Enlightenment before Kant. The first part reconstructs the sources of the problem of universals, focusing in particular on Leibniz and Locke. The second part examines the early eclectic positions of Brucker, Baumgarten, Hollmann and Crusius. In the fourth part the essay investigates the relation between universals and the various combinatorial projects like those of Ploucquet and Lambert.
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5. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Guido Imaguire

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The Problem of Universals is one of the oldest problems of metaphysics. And still, there is no agreement, neither about its nor about its . What is the most adequate formulation of the problem? And what kind of explanation does it require? My aim in this paper is to offer an overview of these two basic questions in the contemporary debate. I will present the four most important formulations (section 1), discuss their connections (section 2) and how the three most prominent are related to these formulations (section 3). We will see that, despite the long history of the problem, in recent years new formulations and approaches have been proposed which may open up original perspectives on its solution.
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articles

6. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos, Orcid-ID Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

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We propose here the first translation into Portuguese of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola’s small treatise De Ente et Uno (1491). The translation is preceded by a brief presentation in which the work is contextualized within the scope of the thought of its young author and in the Florentine philosophical environment of the end of the Quattrocento. In the aftermath of the controversies between defenders of Plato and defenders of Aristotle, a quarrel brought by Greek and Byzantine intellectuals into Italy, who exacerbated the differences between the two philosophers, there were also others who tried to show the essential concord between them, a purpose of which Pico’s treatise is one of the most expressive and relevant documents, seeking to prove the equivalence between Plato’s One and Aristotle’s Being.
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7. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Sacha Zilber Kontic

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The present article aims to analyze the relation between the finitude of the soul and the perception of the infinite in Malebranche’s philosophy. We will initially address the relationship that Malebranche establishes between the spirit and God through the simple vue proof of the existence of God, and the subsequent infinitesimal perception that follows from this immediate apprehension of the infinite. We will then turn specifically to the function that the idea of the infinite plays for Malebranchean theory of perception. On the basis of this analysis, it will become clear how the infinite is not only perceived by the spirit, but also how it becomes, after the introduction of the notion of intelligible extension, a structuring part of perception.
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8. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Brent Delaney

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Since the publication of Hume’s Treatise, scholars have been divided on how to interpret the ontology of Humean relations. In particular, is Hume’s theory of relations consistent with positivism, (skeptical) realism, or anti-realism? In this essay, I propose a novel distinction separating impressions and ideas from relations such that relations are construed as forming a distinct category equal to impressions and ideas. In so doing, I interpret Hume as fundamentally agnostic toward the ontology of relations.
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9. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
David Batho

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Supposing that addicts choose to act as they do, rather than being compelled to behave in particular ways, what explains the choices that they make? Hannah Pickard has recently pointed out that we can go a long way to answering this question if we can make sense of why addicts value the ends they pursue. She argues that addiction is a social identity that gives purpose and structure to life and that the choices that addicts make are valuable to them as ways of sustaining this social identity. But if addicts freely make choices towards ends that they perceive as valuable in terms of a social identity to which they contribute, and therefore if addiction involves the deployment of quite considerable agential apparatus, how are we to hold on to the natural assumption that addictions are disempowering? In this paper I present an answer to this question. Drawing on the resources of the phenomenological tradition, I argue that some social identities give purpose and structure to life in a way that inhibits, rather than enables, the exercise of a capacity that is central to our form of life. I elaborate the hypothesis that paradigmatic cases of addiction involve this sort of disempowering social identity.
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book review

10. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 30 > Issue: 1/2
Luisa Ribeiro Ferreira

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