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series introduction

1. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Ioanna Kuçuradi

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volume introduction

2. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
David Evans

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3. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
María G. Amilburu

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Multiculturalism, namely the coexistence of different cultural traditions within the framework of a single socio-political structure, is one of the most salient characteristics of western democratic societies. This situation is due mainly to two factors. On the one hand, we find a plurality of historical communities within the State that have different cultural roots, and each one of them defends the right to have its cultural identity recognised. On the other hand, there is a growing exodus of people from less developed countries into western ones. In this paper I analyse from a philosophical point of view the multicultural situation that has its origin in immigration, paying attention to a public debate on this topic that has been held in Spain recently. I also analyse some conditions that must be taken into account by educators if they want to promote an adequate integration of immigrants into society, being respectful both of their cultural identity and the rights of the society of destination.
4. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Jorge Ayala Martínez

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Divldimos este trabajo en tres partes. A) El momento histörico, para resaltar la importancia de la educaciön para la vlda de la persona. B) El momento antropolögico o explicativo del concepto de autorrealizaciön. C) El momento etico-pedagögico.
5. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Marta Ruiz Corbella

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Las leyes educativas que rigen el sistema educativo de cualquier pais son de indudable interes, no solo porque regulan el curriculum, la organizaciön de los centros educativos, la igualdad de oportunldades, etc., sino tambien porque aportan las claves para interpretar como cada pais entiende la educaciön, que tipo de ciudadano quiere formar. En definitiva, que tipo de hombre y mujer y de sociedad quiere desarrollar. En las ultimas dos decadas se han aprobado en Espaha cuatro leyes educativas. Los valores en las que se basan, lo que cada una de ellas han querido fomentar, nos dan las claves de que tipo de sociedad se quiere construir, y, sobre todo, que tipo de ciudadanos se quiere formar. Los valores que se potencian en nuestro actual sistema educativo poseen una clara dimension social y democrätica: son valores fundamentalmente de convivencia, que buscan formar un ciudadano demöcrata. Aunque para ese logro se llevan a cabo cons tan tes referencias a los valores morales, como fundamento de los valores sociales, a parte de la necesaria aportaciön de valores culturales, tecnicos, esteticos, ecolögicos, etc.
6. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Nuran Direk

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In this essay, I shall both inquire into the relationship between democracy and education in general and concentr ate on education in philosophy for children in the Turkish cultural context. I argue that education in philosophy for children is useful for teaching the acquisition of knowledge from the information provided, for questioning of rules in different contexts, and for the analysis of facts encountered in daily life. Ethical attitudes can neither be derived from the information provided about the moral rules, nor do they result from a practice of unquestioning obedience. However, during a classroom discussion children can learn to make moral evaluations by taking into account basic rights and values. My experience as a teacher in philosophy for children, which I gained during my time working in childcare institutes, has enabled me to observe the positive effects of this program on children who were awakened to consciousness of their rights by means of it.
7. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Eduardo H. Flichman

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I present one specific way of creating problematic situations: generating perplexity. A teacher with a personal history marked by a struggle to conceptualise the words of the professor or of the book, will have paved his way. The teacher develops his subject clearly. When the students say they understand, it is time to show an apparently paradoxical situation. Perplexity appears. The teacher again explains the subject and all accept again that they understand perfectly. But the difficulty doesn't disappear. The debate begins. The discussion creates murmuring, noise. The perfect moment has arrived. A silent classroom would have meant the teacher's failure. Second step: "rewinding". To go back and look for the failure. The students should discover the failure, helped by the teacher. The second step finishes. Perplexities cannot always be solved, especially in the case of philosophy. When they arise from diverse proposals for a solution, it would be bad teaching to present a single way of solving the problem. Students should know that in these cases the debates are open and the discussion continues. In other cases it is just a conceptual failure in construing the corresponding notion, so the discussion should be closed once the failure is found.
8. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Sílvio Gallo

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Este articulo tiene el objetivo de cuestionar los sentidos del aula de filosofia, sobre todo en la educaciön secundaria. Para eso, parte de la definiciön de filosofia expuesta por Deleuze y Guattari en Qu'est-ce que la philosophie?, donde la senala como una actividad de creaciön de conceptos, hace critica a las concepciones del aula de filosofia como momentos de reflexion, de contemplaciön o incluso de diälogos, una vez que ninguna de estas tareas se hace especfficamente filosöfica. Para garantizar esa especificidad, intenta caracterizar el aula de filosofia como un "taller de conceptos", un espacio donde el maestro y los alumnos se hacen creadores de conceptos, alrededor de problemas vividos, tomando como herramientas los conceptos histöricamente producidos.
9. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Lew Gerbilsky

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At the beginning of the third millennium we are entering a new era. I call it "The Integration/Disintegration Era" because the Integration/ Disintegration Problem is one of the basic problems our world is facing today. Philosophy attempts to work out an integrated view of the universe, of human nature, and of society. The specific philosophical science which has concerned itself with integration/ disintegration, is Integratism. This is the common denominator of different particular problems in the integration /disintegration of the universe, society and personality; and it supplies a possible philosophical solution to the general problem of disintegration. The main concept of integratism is integration [Lat. integer, complete]. My theoretical and empirical study of various aspects of integration/ disintegration problems in modern science and education has led to the formulation of a new, rather systematic and, I believe, quite useful conception of contemporary integratism that contributes not only to the attempt to develop a theory of integration/disintegration processes in various biological and social systems but also to practical problems of developing contemporary integrated educational systems. Further concepts of contemporary integratism are: integrative level, IDon, adaptive disintegration, ADon, disadaptive disintegration, adaptive reintegration, sanosphere, pathosphere, etc. The philosophy of integratism might provide a possible philosophical solution to the general problem of disintegration and in this way assign priority to certain particular problems concerning the disintegration of the world.
10. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Vadim Grekhnev

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This paper deals with an analysis of philosophy as intellectual therapeutics for educational (pedagogical) activity. Two interrelated issues are examined: (1) philosophy's role in the construction of cognitive attitudes to all systems of education; (2) philosophy's role in the formation of a definite value attitude to education. A great deal of attention is devoted to the problem of educational goals. It is argued that the assumed dichotomy of the social and the individual (which still occurs in our teaching practice and in some philosophical doctrines) in defining educational goals, is itself mistaken. It is shown that pedagogical activity must be based on a general concept of man as a whole substance who organically includes qualities in himself. Our pressing concern with education in the twenty-first century promotes a new subject for pedagogical activity. This presupposes a modern philosophical mind capable of creating an individual with a broad worldview and with pragmatic capabilities.
11. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Nassira Hedjerassi

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L'autorite, « une cause perdue », ou « presque perdue » ? Si Ton en croit Hannah Arendt, qui s'exprime en ces termes, la notion d'autorite aurait ete ä la fois passablement obscurcie et fortement compromise par la « Modernite » ; elle aurait meme disparu de notre monde, tant sur le plan politique que prepolitique (qui renvoie ä la sphere de l'education familiale, scolaire). Nous voudrions montrer que cet effacement peut s'entendre avant tout comme une sorte d'eclipse, dans la mesure ou la dimension fondatrice, institutrice de l'autorite est ä reconnaitre, dans le plan politique comme educatif, et que c'est ce qui permet d'etablir selon nous la permanence de sa necessite. Mais la condition pour en prendre la mesure est de proceder ä l'examen critique des confusions qui, «durcissant» et figeant la notion, empechent de penser l'autorite autrement que sous un jour repressif. De ce point de vue l'analyse arendtienne est selon nous ä poursuivre face ä une nouvelle forme de « crise », qui correspond ä un retour de l'autorite invoquee comme force, en des termes qui tendent plus ä la defigurer qu'ä la reinstaller dans sa legitimite.
12. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Erol Inelmen

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Sweeping changes in technology followed by political, social and economic transformation are modifying the expectations from education. There is urgent need for reforms in the aim, content and method of education systems. Evidence is gathered to justify this need and suggest a process that will lead to the desired reform. We argue that character education is a requirement in order to ensure that changes move in the direction envisaged. Empowerment of the parties involved will change the mood of silence and transform the agents into active participants in change.
13. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Vasiliki Karavakou

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The philosophical understanding of moral conscience should constitute one of the most significant concerns of any modern theory of moral education that wishes to be credible and reliable in all morally demanding situations. The purpose of this paper is not to contest the widely accepted notion of conscience as the absolute mark of our moral and spiritual integrity. The purpose of the paper is to postulate and stress the importance of certain "contextual" factors without which modern teaching of moral conscience could very easily lose its certainty and significance. It is argued that unless we make such assumptions, our following the dictates of individual conscience could become a trivial and redundant affair, because nothing could prove that this act is something more than "listening to one's inner voice". In the light of this, the paper proposes a qualified theory that avoids looking at individual conscience as a formal schema and embraces it within the broader framework of the educational demands raised by modern democratic culture.
14. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Salahaddin Khalilov

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There are essential differences between the Eastern and Western models of education. The Eastern model of education aims at the perfecting of an individual to reach his moral purity. Therefore it applies teaching and teacher-student relations on the individual scale, and primarily prefers didactics. The Western model of education considers an individual as a product of the social environment. Therefore it aims at the perfection of the environment itself, of the society, and so it concentrates its attention on socio-economic reforms and considers education as a component of society. It is impossible to find pure Eastern or pure Western models of education. Secular education was formed in the new period. Besides the social structure and peculiarities of relationships with society, educational systems are primarily differentiated on the basis of their purposes. The relationship between the Eastern and Western educational systems is not one that obtains between religious and secular schools. Educational systems depend on the characters of relations between science and practice, science and philosophy, science and religion. Therefore the development of education is closely connected with the nature of the development of science.
15. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Hye-Kyung Kim

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In this paper I argue that Confucius' view of learning in the Analects entails critical thinking. Although he neither specified the logical rules of good reasoning nor theorised about the structure of argument, Confucius advocated and emphasised the importance of critical thinking. For this thesis, I argue that a close examination of Confucius' pronouncements on learning reveals that he takes critical thinking to be essential to learning. For Confucius critical thinking refers to reflective thinking: reflection on the materials of knowledge, in order to synthesise and systematise the raw materials into a whole, and to integrate them into oneself as wisdom.
16. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Zdenko Kodelja

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Tolerance is one of the most important aims of education in a contemporary pluralist society. On the other hand, there is very wide agreement that some phenomena like violence or indoctrination in school are so bad or wrong that they must not be tolerated. In this context, two problems are discussed. First, the limits of tolerance regarding the right of students in public schools to be excused from the specific parts of Instruction which they or their parents see as a form of indoctrination. Secondly, the respect for individual students and their autonomy as a limitation on tolerance regarding the "right" of parents who are members of certain religious sects to exempt their children from the mandatory education in order to maintain their communal and religious identity.
17. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Yasushi Maruyama

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Teaching has been one of the central themes in educational research. Not only empirical researchers of education but also philosophers of education inquire into the activity. Philosophers used to analyse the concept of teaching. The merely analytic approach, however, is no longer the main one in educational research. Will philosophical consideration of teaching, then, never contribute to our educational activity or any other activities in our life at all? In order to explore the possibilities for philosophical consideration of teaching, I will examine three philosophers' distinction between teaching and telling. The philosophers are Israel Scheffler, Karatani Kojin, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. I will conclude that Wittgenstein deconstructs the distinction between teaching and telling, and that he requires us to change our attitude to the recognition of the others.
18. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Jean François, Minko M'Obame

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L'acüon educative repose sur un double fondement: d'une part, la nature et la vocation de l'etre humain, et d'autre part, la societe humaine ä bätir. L'homme a des traits specifiques qui exigent et en meme temps permettent son education: il est imparfait, inacheve (il ne sait pas tout, il ne se comporte pas for cement bien), il faut done l'amener ä s'ameliorer; il est perfectible e'est-a-dire qu'il peut devenir meilleur; il a la volonte de se depasser, de tendre vers l'ideal, ideal qu'il n'atteint, bien sür, jamais; il est capable materiellement, intellectuellement (grace ä sa formation, ä son experience) d'agir sur autrui, de le mener vers cet ideal; enfln, il est conscient de devoir le faire, car l'homme ne peut et ne doit etre eduque que par l'homme. Et, second justificatif de Taction educative: la societe des hommes et les rapports devant exister entre eux. L'homme, par essence, Vit et est fait pour vivre en collectivite. Celle-ci doit etre harmonieuse, bien organisee, de preference sous forme d'Etat, pour le bonheur de tous les membres, lesquels doivent etre ä meme de concourir ä l'edification d'une societe egalitaire, toutes choses qui necessitent Taction educative.
19. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Jurate Morkuniene

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This is an attempt to clarify principally some fundamental ideas clustered around the concept of the formal conditions which would constitute the fruitful study of philosophy. First, an ideal study situation would require the student to participate in the object-subject dialogue; philosophical studies are an active dialogue between the text and the subject. Next, philosophy is a paradigmatically and historically changing institution, grounded on the notions of discipline, autonomy and authority. The idea is that we are currently facing a crisis in philosophy, and this crisis constitutes a major problem for the study of philosophy. The metamorphosis of the concept of philosophy in contemporary philosophy is related to the new problem of the dialogue and interconnections between the object and the subject, new ways of conceiving the truth and a renewed social force of philosophy. New perceptions of the interconnections of the student and philosophical knowledge raise anew the problems of objectivity. Philosophy has lost its autonomy and strict authority.
20. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
John Ozolins

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This paper revives the idea that what is central to education is not facilitating the acquisition of information or skills to use in the marketplace, but the encounter between teacher and learner which enables the student to acquire a richer and deeper appreciation of the human world which he or she inhabits. Knowledge is a human artefact which is created in the initiation of a learner into a common form of life, and this is not something which can be carried out without the involvement of other human beings. It is argued that teaching is a vocation, where this implies a love of truth and of learning for its own sake. A passionate regard for these will not be imparted by the use of technology, but through the experience of sharing in a journey of discovery with another human being.