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1. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Martin Schlag Orcid-ID

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2. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Andrea Roncella, Marta Bertolaso

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In this paper we have two main goals. The first is to challenge two key elements of reductionist thinking concerning human work inherited from the Information and Communication Technology revolution that have significantly shaped current concepts of work at both the individual and institutional level: the ‘flexible man’ model and the obsession with the objective function of economic productivity. We show how, combined with the logic of productivity as a means for continuous economic growth, these elements justify the overlapping of value and price. This overlap characterizes current meritocratic paradigms. Our second goal is to show how and why an emerging integrated paradigm is a more suitable model for taking into consideration the specifically human dimensions of work. These dimensions encompass the sphere of caring and are mostly buried in the functionalist-mechanistic system. In this context, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic can work as an exogenous shock useful to boost the rise of this new paradigm of human work.
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3. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Kenneth S. Mias Orcid-ID

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In an era where autonomous technologies are progressively taking over more complex tasks and decision-making previously done by humans, the mastering of paradox-based skills and effectively reconciling paradoxical situations in everyday life will become increasingly important. This paper asserts that understanding and living with paradox is not only necessary for the future of work but also for human flourishing. While work is the primary means by which humans flourish in the traditional sense, there are deeper and more holistic understandings of human flourishing which requires the acceptance and learning of paradoxical realities. Those who are steeped in the understanding and reality of paradox in everyday life can also be more open to these deeper and more holistic understandings of human flourishing.
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4. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Robert A. Gahl Jr

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The acceleration of technological change due to Industry 4.0 causes a need for new features of old virtues. Recent discoveries in neuroscience and in cognitive behavioral therapy complement classical virtue theory, especially that of Aristotle and Aquinas, to offer new scientific appreciation for classical virtues and more effective strategies for their acquisition. Self-mastery requires the ability to maintain focus on the task at hand in accord with one’s commitments by avoiding rumination, intrusive thoughts, and distractions. Mindfulness, positive psychology, and neuroscience complement the recent philosophical study of the virtues of acknowledged dependence (MacIntyre) and offer strategies for embracing stress for personal and community growth through work within teams shaped by shared goals. The freedom to focus in accord with personal commitments can both contribute to and benefit from the shared goals of a team that is shaped by a common hope.
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5. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Domènec Melé Orcid-ID

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Industry 4.0, which is at the core of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, posits the challenge of humanizing it. Drawing upon Catholic Social Teaching (CST), this article offers a set of ethical and spiritual criteria for such humanization. The starting point is a positive attitude of CST toward technology, admiring it not only for its usefulness, but also as an expression of human creativity, ingenuity, and beauty. This entails a transcendent sense leading to praise the Creator. At the same time, CST warns that technology involves the risk of fostering a techno-centered worldview and calls for a humanistic-centered worldview. Other ethical criteria regard conducting technological developments with ethical guidelines, minimizing inside effects of technological implementations, managing technology for the common good, and introducing technology into the production process in respect of human dignity and favoring human flourishing.
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6. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Kristin Gottron

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The technological developments of the Fourth Industrial Age have set the stage for myriad breakthroughs in the field of data and analytics. However, these innovations have also brought with them new threats to the autonomy and dignity of the human worker. This paper aims to identify some of these new challenges to the integral human development of the worker and to propose principles from the Catholic Social Tradition on the worker that can be practically implemented to address them. By doing so, an ethical framework may be established to preserve the realm of work from dehumanization brought on by an increased focus on algorithmic computation.
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7. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Karel Sovak Orcid-ID

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As our work is ever evolving from agrarian to more service-oriented tasks, the rise of machine learning is the advent of an intelligence that contrasts with the natural intelligence exhibited by humans. Many see the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) as simply another opportunity for business to exploit. Additionally, as coding becomes the new language of the business world, the challenge of using data and analytics to help foster a new generation of human flourishing lessens with organizations solidifying their protocols for the use of AI. As our work changes, it is vital for business to recognize that being a force for good requires policies, procedures, and programs that will respect and promote human dignity at all levels, even amidst the changes brought by AI initiatives. This person-first philosophy needs to be a critical component of any future strategies business utilizes to uphold the well-being of all stakeholders.
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8. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Rev. Dr. Richard Turnbull

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This paper aims to expound and develop the idea of work as enterprise in response to the challenges of the fourth industrial revolution and to demonstrate that Christian theology provides a conceptual framework which helps locate work within an understanding of purpose and human dignity. This paper defines enterprise, considers the purpose of work, and reflects on themes from the common Christian theological tradition which give meaning to the idea of work as enterprise. Further, this article considers the challenge of technology, the place of the market and ethics, the role of innovation and creativity, questions of freedom and regulation, the central place for the development of skills and education, and the transformational nature of work. In addition, this paper has three policy propositions and some practical advice. Work matters because it is at root an expression of our humanity. Technological advance poses both perils and opportunities. The development of the idea of work as enterprise within a framework of Christian theology places entrepreneurship, creativity, and innovation at the heart of our collective response to the fourth industrial revolution.
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9. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Geoffrey C. Friesen

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Current models in finance make strong, self-limiting assumptions about the nature of human utility, human relationships, human flourishing, and human growth. These assumptions facilitate tractable solutions to financial problems but ignore subjective determinants of human well-being and value creation within the firm. The philosophical and theological traditions of Catholic teaching, as well as evidence on human flourishing from model social science, call us beyond these models. This paper focuses on three specific areas where a “disconnect” exists between Catholic teaching and current finance models, highlights the relevance of Catholic teaching, and sketches a framework for more fully integrating human flourishing into finance models.
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10. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Agna Fernandez, C. Joe Arun

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The purpose of this qualitative research is to conceptualize the factors that influence human flourishing. Data has been gathered through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with thirty global heads of Human Resources of manufacturing companies in India and South Asia. Data from these interviews are analyzed using grounded theory methodology to categorize concepts and create a conceptual model of the main themes which contribute to human flourishing. This study highlights three such themes: (1) opportunities for advancement; (2) personal capability; and (3) leading people inclusively. This article provides implications for a more complete model for entrepreneurs, policy makers, and HR heads to understand the conditions necessary for human flourishing, filling a literature gap in the study of human flourishing from the perspective of an employer.
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11. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Frances Jeanne L. Sarmiento Orcid-ID

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This study provides an overview of the different forms of labor contracting in the Philippines, as found in the “formal” economy, i.e., the traditional sectors of Agriculture, Industry, and Services, as well as the “informal” or gig economy. It also discusses similarities and differences between the “formal” and “informal” economy, as well as the increasing precarity of labor contracting, regardless of industry sector and the nature of work. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the precariousness and inequality of labor contracting within the immediate future.
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12. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Maciej Bazela Orcid-ID

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This paper examines how Japan has embraced advanced technologies to address the challenges of an aging society and shrinking labor markets. Using Japan as a case study, this paper explores the relationship between human dignity, the intrinsic value of work, and the fourth industrial revolution. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section describes the scale of aging and shrinking labor markets in Japan, and the measures that the Japanese government has used to tackle these problems. The second section offers a selection of five mini cases that show how advanced technologies are used in different sectors of the Japanese economy. The third section outlines some ethical concerns that go beyond utilitarian benefits of using advanced technologies to address the problem of aging. The perspective of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is adopted as a main advocate of a person-centered social ethics. The fourth section offers an assessment of Japan’s experiment and outlines further research opportunities.
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13. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Arnd Küppers Orcid-ID

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The desire for work, income, and better living conditions is the main cause for international migration. Such labor migration is also called economic migration, although it has many non-economic aspects and side effects as well. This article seeks to examine the reasons for and the consequences of international labor migration in its different dimensions. This will take into consideration the interests of all three groups involved: the migrants and their families, the countries of origin and their peoples, the host countries, and the local populations. The core of the article is a social ethical evaluation of the conflicts of interest revealed in the analysis, considering the values of human dignity and justice. The aim is to explore how to balance different interests through a humane and fair immigration policy and international migration partnership.
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14. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3

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15. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Adenekan Dedeke

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Impact investment ventures are growing in the modern economy. However, the recent failures of some impact investment ventures are a cause for concern. Unfortunately, our concern about the ethicality of these kinds of social exchanges seem to emerge when it is too late. Namely, we become concerned about lack of ethics when a venture has failed or is collapsing. A better approach would be for us to have a means to proactively assess and improve the degree to which the arrangements and practices of a social exchange meet ethical standards. Whereas much work has been done to equip social ventures to evaluate their impacts, little work has been done to create frameworks that could be used to assess the degree to which social exchanges integrate ethical practices in their designs. This paper proposes such a framework. For illustration purposes, the proposed framework would also be used to evaluate the One Acre Farm, an impact investment venture in Africa.
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16. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Thomas Köllen Orcid-ID

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The prevalent rule-based perspective on diversity management renders most diversity initiatives more or less uniform, and it therefore also renders the individual(s) in charge of these initiatives replaceable. Against this background, this article argues that an ethical realignment towards a virtue-based perspective, focusing on the diversity manager him- or herself, could help rethink diversity management, and to refashion it into a more impactful shape. The virtue in question is the Aristotelian notion of the virtue of practical wisdom (phrónēsis). Making their practical wisdom a selection criterion for the recruitment process is a first step in the direction of upgrading the concept of diversity management. However, it is also important to adjust their working conditions, the design of their role, as well as their autonomy and performance evaluations in a way that allows them to develop, maintain, and practice this phrónēsis.
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17. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Irina M. Kopaneva

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The benefit corporation (BC) is a for-profit corporation required to create a positive impact on workers, communities, society, and environment. The purpose of this paper is to explore how BCs reconcile dominant and alternative frames of profit. This study presented here explores three BCs in the U.S. through a dual-method approach based on observations and interviews. The study reveals how BC members understand and express the idea of profit. Furthermore, it shows the formation of an alternative frame of profit and elucidates three processes whereby the dominant and alternative ideas are reconciled. It highlights both interpretive capabilities and limitations of social actors within the dominant discourse of the contemporary social-economic system.
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18. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Sara Mandray

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Muhammad Yunus, Franck Riboud, Grameen Danone, those are some names and projects that may come to mind when thinking about social entrepreneurship. But what about Paul of Tarsus, John Chrysostom or Basil of Caesarea? In this theoretical article, we propose to revisit the ancient notion of oikonomia. Greek philosophers and after them the Church Fathers have drawn for more than twelve centuries the contours of this notion. In the light of their works, we consider the promise of an economy that can be intrinsically altruistic and generous. Building on the work of Paul Ricoeur, we study the ethical dimension of oikonomia as economy of the self, others and the city. The Christian oikonomia is then interpreted as practical wisdom. And at the top of it, social entrepreneurship appears as a sign of a new ethical form of economy that we call relational economy.
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19. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Elme Vivier, Mollie Painter, Gideon Pogrund, Kerrin Myres

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Ethics management programs have become a popular first step for organizations to manage ethical risks and employee behaviors. However, such programs may fail to foster moral responsiveness or acknowledge broader societal issues. This article contributes to this discussion through an analysis of qualitative data from an ethics survey of fifteen South African companies. Results indicate employees experience persistent unethical behaviors in the form of the disrespect, bullying and discrimination. Reflecting on these results, the article explores the limits of ethical management programs, and whether a compliance approach undermines the transformative ethics that is most needed in organizations struggling with diversity and inclusion. Drawing on Levinas, the article shows that openness to the face of the Other does not lend itself to instrumental orientations, nor to formalized, standardized responses. Instead, moral responsiveness to particular Others is required, and it is this aspect that may be absent from South African ethics initiatives.
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20. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2

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