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1. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Ivonne del Valle Orcid-ID

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This article contrasts Saint Augustine’s role in the creation of the Church’s theological dogma to Loyola’s modern gesture of independence vis-à-vis the Church. It then traces Loyola’s method to the core that grounds Descartes’ philosophical works. This core, I claim, is derived from Descartes’ understanding and imitation of the Spiritual Exercises. The Exercises obviate the Church by making it redundant, unnecessary. From this disavowal and distancing, Loyola gives the exercitant the psychological tools to emerge from the Exercises with a strong, new sense of self that with time will transform the institution from within. In Descartes’ case, the moral subject capable of responding to the question of what God wants (the product of the Exercises) is displaced by the epistemological certainty necessary to create a new “Method” to study and understand the world.

2. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Timothy Watson

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This paper is an investigation into the introduction of the term ‘system’ and its conceptual background in the writings of Bartholomew Keckermann. This includes a brief summary of the literature and evidence identifying Keckermann as the first to make significant usage of the term in logic, philosophy, and theology. Then, after a survey of his life, work and milieu, this paper will look closer at three of Keckermann’s own ‘systems’; Systema logicae (1600), Praecognitorum Logicorum (1606), and Systema SS. Theologiae (1602). Finally, I will touch on the influence Keckermann’s innovation had on subsequent ideas of method in modern philosophy, especially how his innovative use of this term gives the logician the directing role as a technical expert in mining the truth of theology, philosophy, and other sciences. This, of course, flies in the face of the medieval view of the Church and its elders controlling that role, characterizing the discovery and refinement of knowledge as being a process of electing and using worthy passive subjects as conduits of divine knowledge. Thus Keckermann’s systems can be considered an important step away from this, towards the early modern epistemology requiring an active thinking subject, best characterized in Descartes’ Meditations.

3. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Hoon J. Lee

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4. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
R. James Lisowski, C.S.C.

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This essay examines Karl Rahner’s theology of sin, specifically his unique rendering of original sin. Before advancing to this specific consideration of original sin, I shall seek to situate his overall theology of sin within his thinking on human freedom. Following this, Rahner’s Mariology will be described and shown to be more or less compatible with traditional Marian teachings. The crux of this essay will argue that Rahner’s rendering of original sin creates a tension with the Mariology that he and the church espouse. Therefore, revision or addition to either Rahner’s Mariology or theology of original sin appears necessary for greater theological coherence.

5. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Robert E. Doud

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Heidegger commentator J. L. Mehta includes in his book the following quote from Heidegger: “Der Wanderschaft in der Wegrichtung zum Fragwürdigen ist nicht Abenteur sondern Heimkehr.” Adapting this idea to the purpose of my own project in this article, I propose: Wandering on the Footpath of Freedom is both an Adventure and a Homecoming! The aim of this article is to explore the idea of freedom as it is developed in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. The strategy here is to examine the salient remarks of several commentators, including Mehta, William Richardson, Werner Brock, Charles Guignon, Rüdiger Safransky, and others. Some of the ideas explored here are: transcendence, overtness, authenticity, poetry and resoluteness.

6. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Gregory C. Lendvay Orcid-ID

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This article investigates teachings from diverse mystical traditions and the quantum physicist, David Bohm. After a brief background on the traditions, a dialogue follows their teachings regarding these questions: How is infinite truth described? How does the phenomenal world relate to infinite truth? How do humans experience the infinite within the phenomenal world? The metaphors from quantum physics proposed by David Bohm poetically intertwine topics of emptiness, innermost awareness, sparks and relationships, storehouses and the heart, roots and souls, resurrection and the truth body, and perceiving truth.

7. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Henrik Friberg-Fernros Orcid-ID

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The aim of this paper is to encourage liberals to reconsider whether liberalism needs to be compatible with naturalism—as is demanded by public reason liberalism—by showing the comparative cost of that and the advantages of grounding liberalism in theism, which is the main alternative to naturalism. The reason why theism provides better grounds for defending liberalism than naturalism does, is that justifying human freedom and equality—which are core values of liberalism—in a robust way, requires metaphysical assumptions that cohere better within a theistic rather than naturalistic framework. More specifically, I argue that liberals should adopt agent-causal libertarianism (ACL) and favor what I will call an endowment account of equality (EAE). Both ACL and EAE are best supported by postulating theistic and theistic-friendly assumptions about the human nature.

8. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Hippokratis Kiaris Orcid-ID

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The simulation argument acquires increased popularity in scientific and intellectual circles. Usually, it is approached from a perspective that examines the validity of the argument from the perspective of whether it can or cannot be accepted. Here I will accept that the argument is valid and that indeed we live in a simulation, and then argue that on this basis the future of humanity is a rather pessimistic one. The concern and eventually realization that we live in a simulation coincides with our cultural evolution as a species and with our intellectual advancement as humanity. Depending on how well-perfected this simulation that we live in is, it mirrors either a “game over” or a “frozen screen” stage, to borrow from the terminology of video games. In these cases, this calls for the intervention of the simulator that either needs to reset its simulation or to eliminate the factor that has caused the malfunction.

9. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
J. P. Moreland

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I examine how a naturalist worldview informs work in philosophy of mind with a special focus on the appropriateness of a naturalist adopting emergent properties in his or her ontology. First, I examine two versions of naturalism construed as worldviews and clarify their differences. I argue that one of these versions is what naturalists ought to embrace. Happily, most but not all naturalists recognize this. To defend this claim, I will lay out certain epistemic criteria that are helpful in adjudicating between rival scientific and philosophical paradigms. These criteria will contribute to supporting my preference for which version of naturalism is preferable. Next, I present a general depiction of the components and inner logic of a naturalistic worldview and follow this by providing a precise notion of an emergent property. Finally, I offer several criticisms of emergent properties and conclude that a naturalist ought to avoid them.

10. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Joshua Sijuwade Orcid-ID

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This article aims to provide a new ontological argument for the existence of God. A specific ‘modal’ version of the ontological argument—termed the Modal Realist Ontological Argument—is formulated within the modal realist metaphysical framework of David K. Lewis, Kris McDaniel and Philip Bricker. Formulating this argument within this specific framework will enable the plausibility of its central premise (i.e., the ‘Possibility Premise’) to be established, and allow one to affirm the soundness of the argument—whilst warding off two oft-raised objections against this type of natural theological argument.

11. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
James B. Gould

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The traditional elimination view affirms that people with intellectual disabilities will be healed in heaven when God restores all things to what they were meant to be. Several contemporary scholars, however, have put forth a revisionist retention view claiming that people with intellectual disabilities will not be healed in heaven. While the elimination view has strong biblical and theological credentials, it faces a significant philosophical difficulty. Heaven must maintain identity so that individuals exist as the same people they were in life. But post-mortem healing appears to disrupt the identity of people with intellectual disabilities. In this paper I reject this charge. I argue that for individuals with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities heaven preserves personal identity, while for individuals with profound intellectual disabilities heaven creates personal identity. These conclusions rest on an emergentist anthropology which I describe.

12. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
Love Ekenberg, Orcid-ID Katja Sarajeva, Mats Danielson, Orcid-ID Lennart Koskinen

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An analysis of the value systems of critical social issues is difficult to carry out in any qualified sense from an unstructured basis and that attempts to do so easily result in relatively superficial discussions of particular issues. Instead, we suggest how this might be viewed from a more holistic ethical and systems theological perspective. In doing so, we review a new framework that aims to distil relevant issues regarding necessary trade-offs and how this can be done. Broadly speaking, this consists of a kind of Socratic dialogue that systematically examines the value basis of the decisions that need to be made, as well as whether the effects of the decisions become unacceptable and thus need to be modified vis-à-vis the normative system embraced by the decision-maker. We discuss the role of theologians in this and emphasise that they should take a larger place in discussions on how to deal with complex societal crises.

13. Philosophy and Theology: Volume > 34 > Issue: 1/2
James B. South

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