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articles in russian

101. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marina Solodkaya

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The author argues that time is the main element of responsibility. The subject, the authority and the object of responsibility are defined by time. Time is the methodological basis for distinction of historically developed kinds of responsibility: legal and ethical one. In essence, legal responsibility is retrospective one (responsibility «for the past»). Legal responsibility has localized and discrete time-character. Expansion of legal civil-law responsibility is essentially connected with changes in point of time of responsibility. Ethical responsibility of the subject assumes nonlocalized and continuous time of responsibility. The central status of time creates a new paradigm of responsibility, which the author understands as existential. This paradigm is based on the recognition of the ability toimpose responsibility «for the future» even in the present.
102. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Naum Yaroshchuk

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“Rethinking of philosophy to-day”, from my point of view, means new understanding of the “basic truths” of philosophy in their use in the analysis of actual social problems of the modern swiftly changing world. One of such actual problems is the problem of a nation that is the most stable social unit, representing a unity of a human and social being, and in this context a human being is understood as a national human being. Only in such a role becomes an element of a social structure of a society. It is not correct to oppose the culture, common to all humanity, and the concrete culture of an individual that is national culture. The essence of culture – the totality of spiritual values - is in its penetration from the culture common to humanity, into the national culture and inversely. There are two tendencies in the world development to-day: integration, mainly in the sphere of economics, and disintegration in national-state sphere, that not always takes place in a peaceful form. It is important to find scientifically based answers to the following questions: whether national traits of social life will always be the source of tension and conflicts or they will bring bright, original vital colors into the picture of a globalized world? In general, can explosive social elements be always formed in the socio-ethnic structure of a society? The answers to these questions are formulated in the sphere of natiology - in the interdisciplinary sphere ofscientific knowledge about a nation, that realizes an important function of natiological education and upbringing.

articles in chinese

103. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Hong-bing Chen, Yu-hai Chen

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The connotation of the “Luddite Imagination” refers to the concepts of the “Luddite Movement” and the “Luddites”, those events and individuals who are seen as conservatives behind the times. The negative connotation of the “Luddite Imagination” changed from the political connotation to cultural connotation. Neo-Luddism identifys the rational advocacy in defense of the old Luddite Movement; There are deep-seated issues involved behind the rehabilitation of thenegative connotation of the “Luddite Imagination”; It has comparative implications on China’s modernization process.
104. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Biao Cheng

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Today, modern large-scale production has created a real life world for people. People's life is so greatly dominated by production that we can say people's life is the life being produced. The basic features of modern life are: First, modern lifestyle is a consumptionism-oriented lifestyle. Consumption has become the main content of modern life. As a result, it is very difficult to distinguish life from consumption. People have changed into consumers. Second, modern lifestyle is a lifestyle of the generalization of commodity logic. Commodity logic has pulled whole society onto the track of the commodity production. People's life is inevitably dominated by the commodity logic, resulting in the prevalence of materialism and money worship. Third, modern lifestyle is a highly homogenized lifestyle,eliminating the possible development of individual personality. The main problems of modern life are: First, lack of conscious reflection of life, People have been lost in a fake sense of happiness. People indulge in a fake sense of happiness created by consumption without any selfconsciousness. Second, lack of correct self-understanding, People have been lost in formal personality. The expressions of formal personality are lack of serious rational thinking. Third, lack of the concern about the transcendent dimension of life, People have been lost in the present dimension of life. People's life has been filled with all kinds of consumergoods and illusions that evoke. Therefore, no room has been left for transcendent issues, such as, the meaning of life.
105. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
ZhiWei Han

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The Conception of practice of Marx philosophy ended practical philosophy and started philosophy practice. Marx didn’t establish practical philosophy but enriched philosophy practice in the objectivity activity of human sensibility. By the objectivity activity of human sensibility in society, history and world wasphilosophy politicized and politics philosophized, which we muss face, when we think about the conception of practice of Marx philosophy and which is inevitable, when we talk about the social practice of contemporary globe.
106. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Lihua Liu

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Marxist value standpoint taking the value of working classes as more important and higher than universal human value has already been proved wrong by the anti-human practice led my the standpoint in the 20th century. Though the disastrous historical reality was definitely beyond or not the expectation of Marxism founders, the practice is logically necessary result of the unavoidable historical limitation and theory mistake of Marxism. In their early years, both Karl Marx andFriedrich Engels held the criterion of the universal human value such as freedom, democracy, equality and fraternity. However, decided or required by the space-time concrete circumstance, they had to concretized the ideal of ‘human liberation’ into the aim of ‘the liberation of proletariat’. According to such the three principles: social existence decides social consciousness, there is no common human nature in a society in which there are different classes, and productive forces is the final motive power and cause of social development, historical materialism demonstrates the supreme position of the value of working classes. These arguments are not persuasive in theory. Marxism itself has to take the universal human value as moral criterion against capitalism. Historical materialism has the problem of inherent reductionism in its epistemic methodology. Also, Marxism commits the obvious simple or lower grade mistake to negate generality with specialty in expounding no common human nature existing in a class society. And The Marxism founders were extremely arrogant psychologically when building their theory system. These are epistemology and psychology factors to form the prejudiced value standpoint. This reflection on the mistake of Marxist value standpoint expects to reach such a common consensus: to accept consciously and further improve and perfect the universal human value that marksmaturity level of today’s human spirit and take the value as the bottom value of being human.
107. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Cui Zhang

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Public sphere is an important idea of Habermas in the early research, which guided his latter research, especially in political philosophy field. According to Habermas’ research on public sphere, this paper researches public sphere’s significance in solving the legalization crisis of capitalism and remedying the democratic theory of bourgeoisie. Public sphere idea set up a new model of the democratic theory, deliberative democracy, which is better than democracy of both liberalism and republicanism, and become the most important theme of Habermas in theory and practice.
108. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Xiuqin Zhang

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Theory, insitution, and practise, which bridge politics with ideology,are medias by which the interact between politics and ideology can be carrying on. As we know,there is a so closly relationship between ideology and politics that we would be identy the practise of ideology with politics. This thesis, Therefore, try toinquiring the polital ideology not just based on the dimension of pure theory itself but on the dimensions of theory,insitution and practise,and also the inreactions of them.It is to say that, as ideology, politics ,i.e. political ideology, have three forms of expression which including ideology of political theory, of political insitution, and of political practise.

articles in korean

109. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Ok-soong Cha

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This thesis reviews Haam Seok Heon‘s See-al philosophy, the main philosophy about life in terms of women. The See-al philosophy was created by Haam, who went through the turbulent times of Korea. So far, we have had papers that dealt with his philosophy under the political, historical and religious contexts, but there has been no paper focused on women. Actually, Haam confessed that it was his mother who structured the foundation of his philosophy. He also said that he learned from his mother about freedom, equality, and the basics of See-al ideas. He developed his philosophy of life, See-al, through the image of his motherwho devoted her whole life to bring him up with love and willingly sacrificed her life for her beloved son. Haam regarded women as a link of all lives in history. He also thought mothers, women in other words, have that power that gives birth, breeds lives and infuses new structure into eternal life; in addition, he stated that women have energy which pulls clear and new things out of filthy and dirty things. Through his image about women, Haam's See-al philosophy extends itself as an ecological life movement. In this paper, Haam's philosophy about women is not reviewed and analyzed by the western point of view because Haam is not a man who spent his life in so-called the "times of women" in the western view. Since his philosophy emphasizes self-reflective, independent life, freedom andequality, we might find out that there are some discrepancies between his philosophy and the lives of his mother and wife who had sacrificed their lives under the patriarchal social system. However, the meaning of Haam's independent life is totally different from the western concept of if. That is, his idea of independent life is closely related to sacrifice. In the current society under the influence of Neo-liberalism, only competition and economic logic matter; however, Haam's philosophy, which states "Life is no different between you and I, and only love can save you and I as one existence" and cherishes every single life as one organism that connects all existing things--sky, earth, human beings, etc.--is of great importance for us to reconsider.
110. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Daihyun Chung

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The Seed Thoughts by YU Youngmo and HAM Sukhun each may be summed up in “People are a May-fly seed” and “Seeds embodies the eternal meaning”. They used “seed” to refer to humans or people on the one hand and placed the notion of seed in the holistic context of the Eastern Asian tradition. Then, I seek to connect the anthropological notion and the holistic notion via cheng or integration. 『The Doctrine of the Mean』 says that any ultimate integration (至誠) reflects a total nature of objects involved (盡性) by showing that self realization and all other realizations are one and not two (成己成物) and by arriving at the stage ofholiness (聖). Then, I may be allowed to say that cheng is a mind or a power not only of humans but also of all other things. Important elements of cheng intentionality can be read out of two thinker’s various conceptual aspects. YU’s interpretation of history to be internalistic, his view of Hangul (Korean written language) as a revealational medium, his hermeneutics of Christian God as the Vacuum cannot be understood on the dichotomous model of humans-nature. HAM’s seed holism, his beliefs that humans’s minds are the heavenly mind and that all things under the heaven should come to be unified are best to be understood on the model of cheng intentionality of integration.
111. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Chong-jae Lee, Kyoung-oh Song

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This study argues that it is more important to enlighten human mind than to develop key competencies in terms of human development. For this, the current study addresses the limitations of OECD's functional approach to competency development, by exploring the conceptual framework of key competencies identified by OECD researchers. Then, it explores the structure of human mind, drawn from the perspective of the Doctrine of the Mean (中庸) which is one of the important East Asian philosophical traditions that has studied the theme of human being or mind. When based on the analysis of the structure of human mind which uses the perspective of the Doctrine of the Mean, this study found that key competencies that a human being should have are basically produced through the operation of human mind. Also, human mind in the Doctrine of the Mean is 'transformed being' from ego-centered to virtue centered. The findings of this study provide some useful implications for the human development. First, given the nature of the human mind and the important role it plays in human life, the primary focus of education should be placed on enlightening the mind of human beings. Second, this study suggests that school education and extra-curricular activities should not only provide knowledge and techniques that are needed in a modern society, but also make an effort to enlighten human mind.
112. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Byung-chang Lee

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The most famous korean Poet Jiha Kim had turned toward the thoughts for life in the beginning of eighties in Korea. I will here introduce the causes and the basis of his thoughts. It has been recognized already that Korean traditional philosophy of DongHak (the learning in the East Asia) and the western philosophies, ie the theology of liberation, the philosophy of Bergson or Deleuze had influenced much to his thoughts for life. But the most determinate basis of his thoughts, I think is the experiences in the movements for democracy in Korea. His thoughts represent the dear believes which the mass have won since the seventies.These believes resides in the not exhausting life powers of the Minjung (Peoples repressed and alienated). His thoughts has succeed to the modern philosophy of democratic resistance but also criticised the severe problems of modern philosophies. After the democratic movement in Korea there has taken place the cultural revolution movements in Korea by new generations, which can not be adjoined to the previous democratic movements without the thoughts for life of Jiha Kim.
113. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Jung-bae Lee

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What I pay attention to in this article is the relationship between Su-wun (水雲) and Da-seok (多夕) in their thoughts. As is generally known, Dong-hak (東學) has been recognized as an independent national religion which rediscovered the forgotten God of Korean People. It is indicated by the fact that Dong-hak is a system of thought which has inherited and developed the theory of three foundations (三才) as the worldview of Cheonbugyeong. In this paper, what I find to be missing in Da-seok's thought is that he did not mention Su-wun's Dong-hak. Given the fact that Da-seok had much interest not only in Buddhism and Confucianism butalso in Cheonbugyeong, it is more or less unexpected that he took Donghak, which was closely related to the scripture, out of the question in his writing. For this reason, the main task of this article is to correlate Su-wuns' Dong-hak and Daseok's thoughts (Understanding of Christianity) in the framework of the idea three foundations (三才) originating from Cheonbugyeong. In order to make these points clear, I will discuss the following in order: First, the theory of three foundationsproclaimed in Cheonbugyeong as the fundamental framework of both Dong-hak and Da-seok's thoughts. Second, the fundamental feature of Da-seok's understanding of Christianity. Third, comparison of Da-seok's understanding of Christianity and Dong-hak in term of their fundamental structure. Lastly, the encounter between Da-seok's Christianity and Dong-hak and its implications for the world history and theology of life.
114. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Ki-sang Lee

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Daseok is a thinker who spent his whole life in searching out the principle of life for all the global citizens’ living together peacefully freed from the ‘absolute’ centripetal force of Europe. We are now at a juncture of drawing up a new grammar of life for living together in a pluralistic age where all kinds of ideologies and world religions should coexist intermingling with each other. Daseok, as a early thinker of the global village period, tried to search out an alternative and integrative thought encompassing the thoughts of Daoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity throughout his whole life. He thought that a clue for solvingsuch a problem on a world philosophy level can be found in the spiritual mind and heart, the nature‐friendly lifestyle, and the integrative thinking structure of Korean people, and in the convivial [mutually vivifying] grammar of Korean language. In his youth, Daseok felt the mystery of life within his own body and spirit. He came to know that ‘I’ as the body is connected to all the life forms and even to all the lifeless forms till now as one unity with them all, the very present ‘I’ being a frontier [an end point] of the cosmological life event. Then, he became awakened to the truth that this ‘I’ should become firewood of the life event for the continuation of the cosmological life cord, in one of whose threads being transmitted even to ‘myself’ without interruption. Afterwards, he came to interpret thephenomenon of life as “an event for the achievement of heavenly commandment through the burning up of one’s own body.” In such an achievement, according to him, we can and should become cosmological persons living a cosmological life of vivifying and serving everything between heaven and earth in communication with the transcendent and yet omnipresent Spirit of heaven.
115. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Jeong-Hyun Youn

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This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is aimed at providing a religious rationale for inter-faith dialogue. Using the principles of ‘Change’ (易, i) and ‘Yin-ying’ (陰陽)dominated in Chinese Classics and East Asian way of thinking, this paper lays out a methodology for envisaging harmony and mutual complementarity between traditions. The effect of some central concepts from within Confucian, Buddhist and Taioist tradition on the Christian thought of Yoo Yŏng-mo is then analysed and examined.In this respect, this paper argues that the Ultimate Reality based on the principle of harmony and mutual complementarity is not only both personal andimpersonal as well as both transcendent and imminent, but also neither personal nor impersonal as well as neither transcendent nor imminent. Essentially, therefore, this essay accepts that Yoo Yŏng-mo’s equating of the Christian idea of God with the ‘Great Ultimate’ (太極) in Confucianism, with ‘Nothingness’ (無) in Buddhism and with the ‘One’ or Tao (道) in the thought of Lao-Chuang (老莊思想) of Taoism is a legitimate equivalence to make and that this does indeed pave the way for a potentially fruitful dialogue between Korea’s main religions. The drawing together of the Great Ultimate, Absolute Nothingness, the One Absolute from the Tao and the traditional personal God of Christianity gives the discussion an entirely new direction which has become a challenge for traditional orthodoxChristian theology and also for a pluralistic religious society.