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21. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Patricio de Navascués

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The article discusses the meaning of chaos in the series of four elements introduced by Irenaeus in haer. 1, 30, 1 to characterize the system of the so-called “Ophites”. Contrary to the explanation that renders this Gnostic system dualistic, it is argued here that, in reality, the “Ophites” of Irenaeus anticipates what we find in other Gnostic families (Naassenes, On the Origin of the World, The Hypostasis of the Archonts) and continues the Orphic tradition that appeared in the Theogony of Jerome and Hellanicus, in which the eternal chaos had been domesticated with the Jewish monotheism of Genesis, and, according to which, this chaos would come to be something like a “hollow”, not eternal, which precedes the material world, shelters it and then favors the appearance of the corporeal. Its status as a Principle should always be understood in a derivative sense, with no obstacle to monism: the Primordial Light (Lumen primum), the only absolute principle, provokes the appearance of the region of the shadow (chaos), but it does so indirectly through the intermediate veil (Spiritus Sanctus). Nothing justifies speaking, therefore, of the “Ophite” system as an ontologically dualistic system.
22. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Daniele Dessì

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This paper, based on some historical sources of the IV and the V century, aims to examine the existence of a fundamentalist Christian community, separated from the Catholics, in Sardinia, between 362 AD and the last decades of the IV century. After his years of exile, the bishop Lucifer returned to his diocese and made the Church of Rome community of Cagliari the symbol of the firm resistance by the intransigent anti-Arians to the conciliatory politics of the rest of the Church towards Arianism. Nevertheless, this separation cannot be recognized as a schism from the Church; it was a voluntary isolation encouraged by Lucifer and perpetuated by his successors.
23. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Giuseppe Peressotti

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This article deals with Mariology as we can deduce it from the works of writers who lived in the region of Aquileia in the 4th and 5th centuries. The first part of the study discusses the Gospel commentary by Fortunatianus and the works of Chromatius, bishops of Aquileia. The second part of the article considers texts excerpted from works on the same subject by Victorinus of Pettau, Rufinus of Concordia and Jerome of Stridon. The prevailent titles used of Mary are «Virgin» and «Mother of God». The article concludes with a comparison among significative texts excerpted from works of Chromatius and that of Rufinus.
24. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Chiara Spuntarelli

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This contribution aims to investigate how Chrysostom’s rhetoric, which is highly pedagogical, is built on the interweaving of visualization and dramatization in order to actualize and materialize what is invisible. The analysis is based in particular on his panegyrical production, which reveal how he constructs a rhetoric of images grounded in the synaesthetic relationship between sight, hearing, touch, and smell. It focuses on the notions of phantasia and enargeia, and insists on a parallelism between the cult of relics and devotion to images which makes it possible to read Chrysostom’s panegyrics, which were proclaimed on pilgrimage at local martyria, with others by him produced for use on the much longer pilgrimages to the Holy Land. The distinctive features of both are visual.
25. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Francesco Celia Orcid-ID

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The subjects of this research are the doctrine of providence, the criticism of fate, and the concept of divine makrothymia in the Greek letters of Isidore of Pelusium. These letters offer neither comprehensive theories nor compelling arguments but relevant, though miscellaneous, information which may help in tracing Isidore’s intellectual profile. More specifically, this study explores the interaction of Isidore with his sources, and unearths substantial new evidence of the direct influence on him of the works of Chrysostom and Pseudo-Chrysostom.
26. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Maria Carolina Campone

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Poem 10 of Paulinus of Nola is fundamental for understanding both his political thought and his mystical life. The reason for the disagreement between Paulinus and Ausonius is not, as has always been believed, the poet’s conversion to Christianity, but rather his attempt to transfer the secessus in villam from the sphere of Neoplatonism to that of Christianity. Paulinus thus claims a place in the history of ancient political thought, in overturning the classical concept of civis and giving new meaning to aeternitas imperii, a fundamental concept of Roman imperial ideology.
27. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Americo Miranda

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The interaction between rhetoric and preaching is evident in St. Augustine in his sermons ad populum or sermons to his congregation. He expresses himself with care with the aim of achieving true spiritual progress in his hearers. Their reactions encourage him to make an attentive use of the rhetoric resources his authoritative experience has given him, and to exploit any possible means of raise his level of discourse. Signs of agreement from his congregation indicate an ongoing relationship with them. At any rate Augustine, in his preaching, is happy to make the best possible use of his rhetorical powers and leave the rest to God. The formation of a long-standing congregation requires him to go beyond customary limits so as to become a notable model of a Christian orator.
28. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Thomas O’Loughlin

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One of the matters on which the layman Januarius questioned Augustine was on differences regarding the celebration of the foot washing in various churches. Augustine, unwilling to accept the assumptions of his questioner’s ecclesiology, defends the practice – in all its variety – as a useful means of communication of the gospel. The exchange allows us to see aspects of Augustine’s view of both liturgy and catechesis using a very precise screen. This, in turn, reminds modern scholarship of just how little we know about the north African liturgy.


29. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Zeno Carra

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In this note we present the recent critical edition (with commentary and translation) of Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 1 published by the Fuentes Patrísticas collection at number 37. We present its distinctive features and its assets as a very useful tool for studies on Irenaeus and gnosticism. We hope, it will complement for interested scholars the previous edition of SCh 263-264.
30. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Giovanni Maria Vian

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Athanasius of Alexandria (about 300-373) commented on the book of Psalms, as Jerome stated in 393. This exegesis has not been preserved directly, but it appeared from the sixth century in the Greek catena, and in an unusual form. The commentary, which includes all the Psalms, is divided into 22 centuries, each century being a series of hundred passages. In all there are 2,161 passages, numbered with great precision in a 10th century Constantinopolitan manuscript, the Vaticanus Gracus 754. This division can be dated back to the sixth century, because the text in this form is confirmed by four oriental versions and by a Byzantine anthology from the end of the 11th century.
31. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Rocco Ronzani

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After a short presentation on the figure and work of Novatian to give context to the evidence, this article examines the sources on the episcopal consecration of Novatian as a rival to Cornelius, the bishop of Rome. We learn of this from Photius’ Bibliothecae codices 182 and 280, which preserves fragments of the lost works against the Novatians of Eulogius, Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, which draw in turn on the lost Acta Nouatiani. This study proposes to identify Tibur (Tivoli) as the episcopal see of one of the three prelates who consecrated Novatian, thus allowing us to include in the episcopal succession of that Church two more names (one certain, the other fictitious, perhaps referring to one of Novatian’s entourage) for the middle of the third century. This is unique for an Italian see outside the city of Rome.


32. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Giuseppe Caruso

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33. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Paul Mattei

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34. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Fabio Ruggiero

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35. Augustinianum: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Giuseppe De Spirito

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36. Augustinianum: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Gianmarco Cerreti

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The paper offers a preliminary treatment of the problems of profiling Apelles as a Marcionite of the late second century. It takes into consideration the available sources on one of the two works of Apelles, the context of which content can be partially reconstructed, namely the Συλλογισμοί. The tradition concerning this work is traced back to three different lines, the first going back to Rhodon’s treatise against the Marcionites, the second to Theophilus of Antioch’s work against Marcion and the third one to Origen’s Commentary on Genesis. Only Origen seems to have quoted the Συλλογισμοί explicitly and all the fragments we possess are transmitted by him, directly or via Ambrose’s treatise On Paradise.
37. Augustinianum: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Jeronimo Leal

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This paper is about the integration between metrical clausulae and rhetorical structure. First, there is a comparison of Waszink’s results using the Zielinski method with Laurand’s system, and my findings on the same group of clausulae. Secondly, we analyze the concluding words of every book of Tertullian, to identify the more frequent clausulae, and the initial words, in which we can find often a cretic. Thirdly, we analyze the metrical prose of Tertullian’s De testimonio animae, to establish a rhetorical scheme for the very first time.
38. Augustinianum: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Vincenzo Ceci

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This article begins by surveying the names of the Father and their occurrences in the Cassiciacum Dialogues, then moves from language to ideas. It explores the meaning, sources and content of notions associated with each named Father. It concludes with a philosophical synthesis focused on the theoretical features of the figure of “the Father”, which conforms with Christian faith as interpreted through careful use of neoplatonic thought.
39. Augustinianum: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Rashad Rehman

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What is Augustine’s commentary on Alypius’ curiosity (curiositas) at the gladiatorial show in Confessiones 6, 8, 13 fundamentally about? Augustinian scholars have interpreted the story widely. Following recent scholarly developments, this work argues for a distinctively Thomistic reading of Alypius’ curiositas. In 1987, Joseph Torchia interpreted this passage as putting only a secondary focus on the story’s emphasis on, in his words, «conflict with God, its inner self, and others». However, this triadic conflict is found in Aquinas: in his Commentary on the Gospel of John (14, 7), Aquinas argues that a conflict with God, self and others is what it means to lack peace (pax). Confessions 6, 8, 13 is read here through a Thomistic lens: the presentation of Alypius’ curiositas is fundamentally a statement about Alypius’ lack of peace.
40. Augustinianum: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Mattia Antonio Agostinone

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In De Trinitate XII Augustine refuses the idea that a family could be the image of God. This is curious, because the theologian that in De Trinitate elaborates a “communitarian model” of the Trinity – the Lover, the Beloved and the Love – at the same time does not see the image of God in the first natural community, the family. The purpose of this paper is to show the deeper reasons for this refutation. After the exposition of Augustine’s argument, the paper identifies Augustine’s polemical reference to a part of the Eastern Tradition, which used the example of the first family (Adam, Eve and Abel/Seth) in order to express the mystery of the Trinity. It examines also how the example of the first family was used by Gregory of Nazianzus in his fifth theological discourse (which some scholars identify as the possible source of the idea of the family as the image of God for Augustine) in a trinitarian way. This study then considers two aspects of Augustine’s argument: that his refutation is not justified by the association of the Holy Spirit with the mother and the bride; that the real reason for it is exegetical, and dependent upon Augustine’s reading of Gn. 1:26. Finally the paper shows that the view of gender differences as merely corporeal is what prevents the Doctor of Grace from reading Gn. 1:27 in a relational-dialogical way to express the intimate communion of the Trinity.