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21. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Miguel Rumayor

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This article focuses on the relationship between democracy and education in the thought of Alexis de Tocqueville. According to de Tocqueville the progress of democracy as a political system throughout history is a universal; it is gradual and unavoidable. It also aims at equality among humankind. This idea is based on the existence of a common human nature that causes a definite morality; the Christian variety. For this author the idea of social and political freedom and the growth of a healthy and democratic society are strongly linked to education for the development of personal and social virtues. As a result of this, the State must create social institutions with a double function. The first one is that it should protect the citizen against anything that might threaten his freedom. In addition the State should reduce all injustices and economic differences. Secondly, it must help each person to develop freely and use his own responsibility and his virtues within society.
22. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Isabelle Sabau

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Philosophical inquiry and thinking skills are of paramount necessity in our troubled and rapidly changing world. Technological advances provide new methods for teaching philosophy, especially through the computer interface of online education. Online courses can open new opportunities and achieve the same quality of education as more traditional practices. In order to ensure success and quality, online pedagogies require great attention to discussion and collaboration. This paper explores some important elements in developing successful online philosophy courses.
23. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Raf Vanderstraeten

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This paper analyses the coevolution of the concept of 'Bildung' (inner-formation, selfcultivation) and the structures of education and society. Although a newcomer to the German language, with a still somewhat obscure meaning, 'Bildung' becomes a key concept in social discourse around 1800. In this paper, I will focus on the concept and its social role in a mainly European context. This paper will deal with the meaning of the concept and with the coevolution of 'Bildung' and societal structures.
24. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Ponti Venter

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How to understand the "entrepreneurial university"? Three hundred years of popularised economic/philosophical thought, in which conflict/competition has been presented as progressive; lacking a normative context, this becomes warlike. Society presented as a "macro-market", linking people with money and media and frowning on political justice, leads to economism (economic totalitarianism). This instrumentalises universities and motivates bookkeeping rationality and goal rationality; the maximisation thesis guides managerial aims. Scholarship becomes industrialised and leadership managerialised. Empty concepts of "quality" and "competitiveness" become audit measures of "excellence"; this is standardised scholarship, serving hedonistic leisure class values and neglecting perspectivised creative, critical involvement with the suffering world.
25. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Fidel Gutiérrez Vivanco

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La educaciön en su nueva faceta mundial y ante el efecto de la globalizaciön, exige un modelo universalmente valido para poder encarar los problemas regionales en funciön a los fines universales de la humanidad. Esta tarea exige una nueva filosofia de la educaciön, como punto de partida para construir los fundamentos de la nueva educaciön. Esta necesidad surge inevitablemente como una respuesta a los grandes cambios que genera la globalizaciön. Una nueva educaciön tiene como finalidad lograr la formaciön integral del ser humano en sus tres dimensiones: biolögico, social y espiritual. Dicha finalidad a la vez estä ligada a un fin mucho mäs elevado, como es la conservaciön de la humanidad.
26. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Yusef Waghid

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Higher education restructuring in South Africa has been heavily influenced by policy processes which culminated in the formulation of several documents, including: the National Commission on Higher Education (NCHE) Report (1996), the Education White Paper 3 (EWP, 1997) entitled "A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education", the Council on Higher Education (CHE) Report entitled "Towards a New Higher Education Laindscape: meeting the Equity, Quality and Social Development Imperatives of South Africa in the 21st Century" (2000) and the National Plan for Higher Education (2001). The National Plan for Higher Education in South Africa (2001) outlines the framework and mechanisms for implementing and realising the policy goals of the Education White Paper 3. With reference to the need of the higjier education system to develop the intellectual capacities of people by inculcating in them high quality skills and competences which, in turn, can lead to a heightened form of political accountability on the part of democratic South African citizens, my contention is that this can best be achieved if "outcomes" announced in the National Plan are implemented along the lines of deliberative democracy and citizenship. It is this position I wish to analyse and explore in this paper with reference to one specific "outcome": enhanced cognitive skills of graduates.
27. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Arnold Wilson

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Here I seek to define creative teaching in Philosophy. I argue that creative teaching must be distinguished from efforts that are merely novel, offering no gains in student learning or that offer faculty no gain as alternatives to standard methods. I discuss efficiency and productivity in teaching Philosophy and our ability to adopt creative methods.

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28. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4

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29. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4

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