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61. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Sara Totta

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We intend to analyse the materialistic approach to the category of totality developed by Marx, namely in its theoretical application to the dialectical interpretation of the concept of production in the capitalist economic system.
62. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Emanuela Conversano

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My article does not aim at a comparison between Hegel’s and Marx’s points of view on Asia as such. The Hegelian motives are employed to understand the place and the significance of the Orient in Marx’s writings from the 1850s onwards. The more Marx learns from original and/or updated sources on the Oriental societies, the more Hegel’s authority seems inadequate to provide a reliable and comprehensive account of their history and social organization. Yet his “spirit” still holds together the different perspectives from which the subject is approached by Marx (economy, history and praxis, above all). In other words, Marx’s interest in Asia is here considered through the lens of Hegel’s legacy in order to reflect on the endless effort of the materialistic dialectic to encompass the complexity of reality and global history.
63. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Antonis Balasopoulos

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Taking its cue from the untimely paradoxes manifesting themselves in some of the most visible instances of Hegel’s and Marx’s reception in the twentieth century, this essay proceeds to explore the ground between the two thinkers with particular reference to their philosophico-historical grasp of repetition. After a number of preliminary observations on the ideological subtext involved in Marx’s reference to Hegel in the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte and the temporality their intertextual conjuncture stages, I focus on four major complications that attend the comparison of Hegelian and Marxian notions of repetition, as well as on their correlation to the historical events of Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Restoration. I conclude with some reflections on the “exit strategies” Marx and Hegel adopt vis-à-vis the specter of iteration as a sign of submission to the gravitational pull of the past upon the present and future.
64. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Agemir Bavaresco, Christian Iber, Eduardo Garcia Lara

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Hegel’s theory of reflection plays both a logical and ontological role in Marx’s theory of labour and private property. What is the point of comparison between a Hegelian and a Marxian theory of reflection? The theory of alienation. In Hegel, one has the alienation of thought in reflective thinking – the understanding’s mode of operation; in Marx, the alienation of labour under private property. As an activity, labour has, according to Marx – like the activity of thinking, in Hegel – the structure of negativity: the structure of externalization and return to the self. In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts (1844), in particular, Marx developed a theory of the externalization of labour in which alienation prevents the latter from fulfilling its return to itself. Labour becomes alienated, leaves itself and remains outside of itself, for it is appropriated by private property.
65. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Maria José Maurício

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The present text focuses on the cultural representations of the feminine and on feminine exploitation practices in Western culture, labour and society, through deformed concepts and discriminatory mechanisms within a framework of capitalist production relations. Throughout history, and in light of the confrontation between capital and wage labour, women’s social emancipation has been the subject of debate and reflection, in particular through a materialist and dialectical approach, whose political and ideological implications are still relevant today Using as reference Marx’s “Theses on Feuerbach”, I intend to contribute to the reflection on this theme, starting from thesis 8, which states that “social living is essentially practical”. My aim is to demonstrate the pertinence of Marx’s thesis with regard to social class relations, and its connection with the issues of the feminine and the social status of women in contemporary society. In my view, Marx’s contribution can help contextualize the feminine question, conceptualize key theoretical and practical aspects, arrive at an understanding of the problem and contribute to a transformative practice, aiming at the social emancipation of human beings.

ensaios

66. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Lampros I. Papagiannis

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In this article we shall try to explore the ethical aspects of the Dao De Jing and the fragments of the pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus based on the symbolism of the infant that they both use. At first a very short introduction needs to be made concerning the basis of morality and the difference between China and Greece. Needless to say we must take into account the general ethical context in the civilizations of ancient China and ancient Greece and indicate (if possible) whether the DDJ is to be seen as a strictly ethical/political text as well as whether Heraclitus’ fragments work as an ethical map for the people of his time and place. I intent to structure this article in two chapters each one dedicated to each of the philosophers along with a short introduction in the beginning. As far as the main chapters are concerned the Lao-Zi’s DDJ will be analyzed at first from the perspective of ethics in connection to the symbol of the infant not rarely used by Lao-Zi. Secondly I shall deal with the ethical thought of Heraclitus and his perspective of the infant found in some of his fragments. Let us keep in mind that apart from the fragments themselves, the witnesses (i.e. stories about his life) play a not less important role in our extracting his philosophical opinions. Lastly we shall try to come to a conclusion concerning the similarities and dissimilarities between Lao-Zi and Heraclitus regarding their views on ethics and especially regarding the use of the infant as a symbol or a pattern.
67. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Wendel de Holanda Pereira Campelo

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This article offers a reading of David Hume’s skeptical “dangerous dilemma”, comparing it with the thought of authors of the seventeenth century as Descartes, Pascal and Huet with regard to the wavering between our natural sentiment and skeptical doubt. Based on this, we propose a different reading of the relationship between sentiment and reason in the Treatise of Human Nature, often taken only negatively and stressed by the interpreters of Hume’s skepticism.
68. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Ubirajara Rancan de Azevedo Marques

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In 1781, prior to any Kantian reference in favor of the epigenesis – a direct, nominal reference, published in life –, two comparative passages of the “Architectonic of Pure Reason” will have drawn no attention from his readers. But, despite omitting that “augmentation” [Vermehrung], such passages shall lead, both on its own and jointly, to the possibility of a retrospective conflict regarding that theory; a conflict of a conceptual nature which may have repercussions on Kant’s position on the epigenesis, be it directly, on a metaphorical-speculative level, be it indirectly, on an embryological level. The present, ongoing study shall deal with the collocation of the problem, the presentation of some elements in view of its analysis and, finally, a possible solution for the difficulties which the two passages of both editions of the Critique indirectly raise.

recensões

69. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Maria Leonor Xavier

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70. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Tiago Carvalho

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71. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54
Viriato Soromenho-Marques

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72. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54

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73. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54

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74. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 54

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75. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Adriana Veríssimo Serrão, Orcid-ID Elisabete M. de Sousa

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artigos

76. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Carlos João Correia

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This paper analyses which are the great cultural cosmogonic models of creation in mythology; so it will be an essay of comparative mythology about the origin of the world, a study marked by the concern to detect philosophical principles that guide this area of thought.
77. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Adriana Veríssimo Serrão Orcid-ID

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In this didactic article several perspectives of the philosophical anthropology are presented, showing at the same time the difficulties in delimiting “the question of Man” as an autonomous discipline. Starting from the ambivalence contained in the expression “philosophical anthropology”, we present some data about the history of the word “anthropology”. Next, the typologies elaborated by Max Scheler and Ernst Cassirer illustrate large explanatory models of what “human-being” means, concluding at the same time by the failure of a historical path leading to uncertainty. Finally, the identification of philosophy with anthropology is referred in Kant and in Ludwig Feuerbach.
78. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
João Gouveia

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The major goal of Rousseau’s Discours sur L’Origine et les Fondements de L’Inégalité Parmi les Hommes is the distinction between primary and secondary qualities of human nature, the former being the most representative of the human species and the latter those that cause variations between individuals. Having this distinction as a basic tool, Rousseau searches, in his political works, for a foundation of a social condition in conformity to those essential qualities. Therefore, it’s important to understand how human beings can keep under control the less beneficial characteristics of their nature, that is, the ones that may lead to endless conflicts when stimulated. Having in mind that the community is founded by a permanent exercise of giving priority to the essential qualities of human nature over the secondary ones, we shall also understand whether Rousseau’s community is meant to have an organizational structure, distinct from the existence of particular human beings.
79. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Vasco Baptista Marques

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This article analyses – in a necessarily summarized and incomplete way – the antithetical configurations of Fichte’s, Schelling’s and Hegel’s concepts of freedom, taking them as attempts to resolve the fundamental dualism of modern thought, namely: the opposition of spirit and nature.
80. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Jesica Estefanía Buffone

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This paper explores some of the works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, in which the phenomenologist provides a description of childhood or the child image that reports relevant aspects to his theory. The description of ‘childhood’ as a place inhabited by many places, as a primary silence or as that unspeakable, shows us childhood as the opening of a new field of experience and the institution of a new sense. Childhood will not only be a methodological object of interest in his psychology studies, but also a primal advancement of experience – the mere potentiality yet not thrown (or rather, having not yet been thrown) into the world where everything will, necessarily, have sense.