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1. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 2
Karel Novotný L’ouverture du champs phénoménal : la donation ou l’interprétation ?: Sur le problème de l’apparaitre comme tel chez Jan Patočka
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Jan Patočka made a tentative to renew phenomenology as an investigation of the appearance as such. This project should not only liberate the phenomenal field from certain « metaphysical closure » imposed on it by the construction of a transcendental subjectivity. The givenness of the sensible world with its possibilities for corporal activity is opposed also to Heidegger’s concepts of understanding and projection as another types of subjectivism. However, in the end, these kinds of « metaphysical closure » seems to be replaced by another one when Patočka looks for the ultimate foundation of the appearance in a « ground of the world ».
2. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 2
Delia Popa Les marges du reel et la vie imaginaire
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The essay confronts the objective conception of reality with the phenomenological one in order to observe the implication of imagination in the constitution of our sense of the real. Though fantasy seems to be the opposite of the real perception, as Jean-Paul Sartre showed it in his book “L’imaginaire”, the paper argues, following the arguments of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Henri Maldiney and Marc Richir – but also the ancient argument of Aristotle concerning the sensible appearance – that it participates in an active and necessary way at the subjective foundation of reality.
3. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 2
Carole Talon-Hugon Dire l’ ‘être invisible du sentiment’: phénoménologie et littérature
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The fourth part of L’Essence de la manifestation is devoted to the sentiments and consitute a quite unique sort of treatise on the passions. Through the analysis of this text, I here show why, according to Michel Henry, scientific treatment of Descartes and the contemporary neurobiologists who are his heirs claim to submit the passions is necessarily mistaken ; why the traditional objectivistic discourses of ph are inevitably deficient ; and finally why Henry’s reflection on the sentiments finds at once its expression and fulfillment in literature.
4. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 2
Nicoleta Szabo La genese de la visibilite et l’eff ort du corps: Konrad Fiedler, Edmund Husserl et Maurice Merleau-Ponty
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This essay proposes a phenomenological interpretation of Konrad Fiedler’s philosophy of art. He’s a Nineteenth century German philosopher who’s theory of visibility (die Sichtbarkeit) and body (der Leib) comprises, in many aspects, a phenomenological view avant la lettre. We compare Fiedler’s account of visibility with Husserl’s phenomenology of the visual representation and we argue that the artistic visibility and the activity of the body proposed by Fiedler may be considered as a phenomenological solution for the problem of artistic creation. Finally, we underline the conceptual affinity between Fiedler’s theory of the body implicated in the making of artistic works and the Merleau-Ponty’s own view of it.
5. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 2
Laurent Perreau De la phénoménologie à l’ethnométhodologie: variétés d’ontologie sociale chez Husserl, Schütz et Garfinkel
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This article tries to distinguish several types of “social ontology,” i.e., several types of answers to the question of the essence of social reality. As phenomenology and the social sciences are both concerned with this problem, it seems interesting to follow the historical sequence that links Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology, Schutz’s theory of the lifeworld, and Garfinkel’s ethnomethodology. These theories help to identify or to illustrate tree types of social ontology: philosophical ontology, common and ordinary knowledge ontology, and sociological ontology.
6. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Natalie Depraz Attention et affection: la micro-genèse husserlienne de l’attention à la lumière des perspectives empiriques de Stumpf et de James, de Külpe et de Titchener
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Husserl’s genetic phenomenology is relied on to make sense of the emergence of attention such as it arises, on the one hand, from bodily gestures and, on the other hand, according to the hypothesis of attentionality as a modulation such as it has begun to be developed through the historical and contemporary contributions of psychology and neurobiology. We attempt to show how the static framework initially advanced is in continuity with the genetic logic that allows us to deepen the hypothesis in questions by confronting the empirical analyses of Stumpf, James, Kulpe, and Tichner.
7. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Tatsuya Nishiyama Retrait à traduire: (vers une confrontation entre Heidegger et Derrida)
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In the 1978 essay “Le retrait de la metaphore” – a text that constitutes a part of his well-known debate on the notion of metaphor with Paul Ricoeur – Jacques Derrida discusses the peculiar translatability of the French word “retrait.” It is a word that plays an important role in the French reception of Heidegger's thought, not only as a translation for “Entzug” (withdrawal, removal), but also as an indicator of the very translatability of Heidegger’s thought. This paper discusses the challenge proposed by Derrida to Heidegger’s thought on translation, on the basis of a reflection – and translation – of the word “retrait.” Derrida adopts a strategy of re-translating and counter-translating the word “retrait.” Such a praxis of (re- and counter-) translation is profoundly related to the movement of the “retrait” itself, which opens up a space for the general transformability in language and in the history of metaphysics.
8. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 4
Ruud Welten L’âme cartésienne de la phénoménologie
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From the point of view of Husserlian philosophy, Descartes failed to arrive at a transcendental phenomenological subject. According to Husserl, Descartes’s cogito represents a psychological statement. Michel Henry maintains that Descartes’s “ego cogito ergo sum” implies a full phenomenological subject, not because of its transcendental disposition—on the contrary, because of its pure self-affection. Consciousness according to Henry is not “consciousness of something outside the self,” but the pure consciousness of being affected. This is the real kernel or soul of phenomenology, which can be understood as the Cartesian soul itself. Henry develops this argumentation not only through the formulation of the ego cogito but also by means of art. 26 of Descartes’s latest work, The Passions of the Soul. In this work, the relation between ‘actions’ and ‘passions’ is thought as an early attempt to establish a philosophy of consciousness. According to Henry, this remains fully neglected in the philosophies of Husserl and Heidegger. This not only implies a rehabilitation of the soul as phenomenological object, but also the recapture of phenomenology itself, which begins not with Husserl, but with Descartes.
9. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 3
Jad Hatem L’image est la vie
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Even if life is, above all, a reality which feels itself and therefore does not need to exteriorize itself, it cannot explain itself otherwise than by objectifying itself. Understanding itself is radically different from affecting itself. And when life cannot reside in exteriority, it is ectopical (outside its place) through the image. In the Middle Age, imagining meant “giving form to a matter”. It is natural that to the psychic matter correspond a psychic form, which in the end builds a mental image. When we think an image whose matter alone is psychic (the form being enclosed in the extension), the result will be an exoplasma—that is to be found in fantastic literature.
10. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 3
Paul Marinescu L’universalité comme « aspect productif de la temporalité » chez Hans-Georg Gadamer
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The present article deals with the problem of the universality of hermeneutics as it is addressed in Hans-Georg Gadamer’s work. After a brief genealogical discussion of the notion of universality, this paper will attempt to identify, by analyzing the « figure » of temporal distance (which is, according to Gadamer, a transcendental structure of the hermeneutical experience) a new and profound meaning of universality related to temporality. By considering it as « universalisation », the question of the universality of hermeneutics will be put not only in terms of a finitude constitutive for the human comprehension, but also associating it with time’s capacity to separate between understanding and misunderstanding, and thus to reveal « the thing itself ».
11. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 3
Domenico Jervolino Le long dialogue de Ricoeur avec la psychanalyse freudienne
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The encounter with Freud stands at the core of Ricoeur’s philosophical itinerary. This paper intends to bring about what is at stake in this encounter not only through a second reading of the famous essay on Freud from 1965, but also by taking into account the Ricoeur’s work. Special attention is paid to his continuous effort to build an ethics of life as a free gift, to which we have to answer with gratitude and generosity, always being aware of the fact that the human being implies both activity and passivity and that any human capacity is accompanied and menaced by a form of incapacity. The key to the existence is then finitude, vulnerability, and unaccomplishment. The work of mourning, as taught by Freud, has to liberate us from the illusions of omnipotence and bring us back to the authentic awareness of the human condition. However, this final wisdom does not lead to an ascetic Stoical conception of living. On the contrary, it is the premise for attending joy, against both the enigma and the challenge of evil, by persevering in the fight against the evil spread throughout the world. It is a fight against what is painful or degrading to the humane character of humankind.