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1. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
B. S. Ukraintsev Scientific Philosophy and Methods of Science
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Scientific philosophy serves as a general methodological guide in the development of methods of sciences. It represents the pole of interaction of methods, from which originates the trend of interaction as a whole towards increasing concreteness of scientific methods. Concretization of the philosophical method in the methods of science enriches scientific philosophy. There is the other way influence: the development of methods of science provides material for new generalizations of scientific philosophy.
2. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
V. V. Tselishchev The Nature of Numbers and the Interpretation of Quantifiers
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The problem of alternative models which arises at the explication of theory of numbers within the set theory is under discussion in this paper. The conceptions of W. Quine, P. Benacerraf and N. White are discussed here in this connection. The new solution of the above problem is suggested which is a modification of Benacerraffs conception through accepting substitutional interpretation of quantifiers. The consequences of admitting the substitutional interpretation are discussed in the paper which relate to the problems of genuine progression, counting and contemporary version of Pythgoreism.
3. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Adam Urbanek The Meaning of Natural Selection and Reductionism in Evolutionary Biology
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There were only a few attempts at reduction of the Darwinian principle of natural selection to physicochemical terms. The best substantiated are views of M. Eigen (1972). He has defined natural selection in terms of kinetics of biochemical reactions responsible for selfreproduction of information carriers in biosystems. A view is advanced here that equations propose by Eigen are inadequate to describe the action of Darwinian natural selection. They offer only an informational and biophysical paraphrase of the so-called Non-Darwinian selection neglecting survival and adaptation as indispensable effects of Darwinian natural selection.
4. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
V. Weidemann Cosmology: Science or Speculation?
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The philosophical implications of recent results in observational cosmology, especially concerning the evolutionary nature of our Universe and its high degree of isotropy, and of the possible existence of black holes, are discussed in the context of established or more recently proposed cosmological principles. We emphasize the borderline problem between science and speculation. We expect that scientifically 'admitted' questions will be more restricted in the future, whereas some philosophical concepts applied to the Universe might loose their exclusivity.
5. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Marx W. Wartofsky Is Science Contemporary Rationality?
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The question which I raise in this paper—"Is Science contenporary rationality?"—is entended to place the issue in an historical context.That is to say: rationality has a history. Modem science, I will argue is the dominant contenporary form of this rationality, as a matter of fact. The ceritical question is then: what normative claim does contenporary science make for this dominant position? Can contenporary science be understood as a historical form of rationality which has superseded earlier forms, and which itself has historical limitations? I compare the mathematical model of scientific rationality of seventeenth century science with that of contenporary science, and consider whether there are norms of rationality which remain invariant through historical change.
6. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Donald Phillip Verene On Rhetoric and Imagination as Kinds of Knowledge
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Since Descartes and Locke, theory of knowledge and the concept of rationality itself have been closely allied with the sciences, common sense, and empirical understanding. I argue: (1) that theory of knowledge must be extended to theory of myth, to a theory of the origin of consciousness understood in cultural terms, rather than purely logical or metaphysical terms; and (2) that this understanding of origin involves an understanding of the fundamental relationship between rationality and two forms of mind which have traditionally be defined out of the sphere of knowledge—rhetoric and imagination. The argument that I make is based in part on an interpretation of Vico's New Science.
7. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Caroline Whitbeck Etiology and the Etiologic Agent
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It is argued there are features which distinguish causal conditions from necessary or sufficient conditions in general; that causal conditions are those which serve our instrumental interests, i.e., interests in producing or preventing states of affairs. It is further argued that the context of our instrumental interests determines what causal condition is designated as "the cause" in scientific contexts. It is argued that this is true of the health sciences in particular and the particular instrumental interests characteristic of the health sciences are further shown to govern the choice of what causal condition of a disease is accorded the status of etiologic agent.
8. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Nina S. Yulina Images of Science, Pluralism of Metaphysical Theories and Rationality
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In the paper a task is formulated to explain the pluralism of forms of metaphysics proceeding with the thesis of overstating in these forms of the diverse aspects of the image of science and of the. difference between the latter and the real content of the scientific knowledge. The author believes that every objective philosophy should try to reach the ideal of dialectical unity of knowledge.
9. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Mary-Barbara Zeldin The Factuality of Values
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The distinction of fact and value and the problems entailed by it are concerns only for modern, Western thought. The distinction is supported by Kant, who, however, also attempts to solve its consequent problems. His first attempt is made by arguing that the standard of value is itself a fact. This brings fact and value together, but only in an intelligible world. Kant's second attempt is found in the third Critique in the argument that man, as both rational and animal, must view the world in teleological terms; so doing advances the task of science, finds support in objects of natural beauty, and leads to the creation of beauty in art. Thus, ultimately, the highest complete good, a world under moral laws is itself seen as in fact really possible as the final goal of human creative artistic activity.
10. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Zdzislaw Augustynek Absolute Relational Time
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The definition of absolute relational time in the Special Theory of Relativity/STR/ is analysed. According to it time is the set of events partially ordered by the relation absolutely earlier than, i.e. independent of arbitrary inertial reference System. This definition has a few advantages: it extracts and expresses the absolute aspect of time in STR, it suggests a possibility of its application in the General Theory of Relativity and so on.
11. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
L.M. Arkhangelsky The Nature of Moral Norms and the Dialectics of their Development
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The essence and development of moral norms is connected with the dialectics of the direct and inverse relationship between the real and the necessary. Moral norms reflect the need to harmonize interpersonal relations and the conditions of human existence. The historical changes in the need and the conditions cause some moral norms to die out and new ones to appear. The objective criteria of moral values at all stages of historical development are the interests of social progress. The all-round humanization of social relations is possible only on the basis of socioeconomic, political and ideological transformations.
12. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
I. D. Andreev The Stimulating Forces of Scientific and Technical Progress
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Science history shows that the most important basic and the decisive factor of the scientifico-technical progress is the social practice while the stimulating forces of the knowledge are their dialectical contradictions and Creative solving. The role of the outstanding scientists in Science development is important but their new results may been obtained only on the base of the investigations done before them.
13. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Mary-Rose Barral The Body-Soul-Consciousness Dialectic
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Whether man's consciousness arises from his bodily condition or is an entity in itself vis-a-vis the world is the Key topic discussed in this paper. From a phenomenological study of man's "lived experience", it seems clear that consciousness is rooted in the materiality of nature and of the world. Both the Other and the world are necessary for the emerging and development of man's consciousness. Evidence points to a unity of man's physical and spiritual seif.
14. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Archie J. Bahm Axiology: The Science of Values
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I. NATURE OF SCIENCE. Components: problems, attitude, methods, activities, conclusions, effects. Science able to generalize about values.II. NATURE OF VALUES. Distinctions needed: good-bad, ends-means, subjective-objective, apparent-real, actual-potential. Intrinsic goods: feelings of pleasure (Hedonism), satisfaction (Voluntarism), enthusiasm (Romanticism), contentment (Anandism), singly or mingled (Organicism). Subjective values objectified (einfuhlung) like concepts in percepts. Real intrinsic values: feelings in other persons; naively reified values.
15. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Robert N. Beck Prolegomena for the Concept "Universe"
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Five prolegomena for formulating the concept "universe" are explored: 1) The formulation of the concept "universe" must be such that no plural of the term is possible; 2) Epistemological considerations are inadequate for determining the concept; 3) Substitution of synonyms is inadequate to the concept and is in fact a procedure based on special and limited principles; 4) Phenomenological investigations of, e.g., "world," are insufficient to provide an analysis of the concept "universe"; 5) The concept "universe" is a categorical concept which must be given connotation by way of a completion of categorial analyses of things "in" the universe.
16. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Sarah Anne Steuber Bishop Mastering Scientific and Technological Progress: Suggestions on the Practical Importance of Prediction
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Prediction, a notion which intimately relates Science and technology, is examined, and a proposal made to translate predictions into performatives and complex questions. Insights gained from a recent study of the accuracy of technological predictions shed some light on the nature of scientific knowledge, theories, and practice. Some of Michael Scriven's Claims regarding value-laden "science" are thrown into question.
17. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Paul A. Bogaard The Rationalization of Structure
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The dependence of biology upon chemistry is based largely upon the structural explication of those substances which are typical of this level of complexity. There is, however, at least one serious ambiguity in the understanding to be gained in terms of "structure" which must be made explicit if we are to appreciate how far this "dependence" diverges from the Standard view of "reduction". I distinguish "civil" from "molecular" structures to help see through this ambiguity, draw out its implications by comparison with Polanyi's notion of "irreducible structure" and Simon's notion of "heirarchical structure", and finally argue why practitioners themselves only claim to be providing a "rationalization" of structure.
18. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
S.M. Brajovic History of Philosophy as a Forum of Rationality Under Scientific-Technical Revolution
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The article deals with the interrelation between history of philosophy and scientific-technical revolution. The author asks how much the process of change in Science affected history and methodology of philosophy, the latter involving the Problem of including philosophic legacy in the process of upbringing so that to free a person from Professional one-sidedness and the all-round development of Personality should be secured. The real problem consists in the dialectics of continuity and change, tradition and the present, v/hen the two exist in close interrelation.
19. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Euryalo Cannabrava Illative Space and Theory of Knowledge
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The paper is concerned with illative argument and natural inference in its relations with theoretical problems of knowledge. Illative argument is neither deductive nor inductive: it is cognitive as natural and spontaneous way of reasoning. And ultimately it starts a free search for the sources of cognitive modes of thought, grounded in association of ideas by elective affinities (Wahlverwandtschaft) in a Goethean style.
20. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Alexei S. Bogomolov Dialectic and Rationality
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The "rationality" of myth conceived structurally (after C.Levi-Strauss) as a mediation of oppositions of mythical thought, is compared with the dialectic in its rational form. The latter being a teaching of solution of contradictions of being and knowledge, is analysed from the point of its conformity to such necessary features of scientific rationality as: criticism, an ability to be productive of the progress of knowledge, logicality, empirical content. The author regards rational dialectic as a mode of a solution of oppositions of Contemporary concept of rationality.