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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Michael Ch. Michailov, Eva Neu Anthropologie und Philosophie: Was ist der Mensch?
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One Seit Platon (mit dem Spott von Diogenes) über Kant ist die Fundamentalfrage "Was ist der Mensch?" bis heute nicht nur von der Philosophie (als regina scientiarum), sondern von der Wissenschaft überhaupt nicht beantwortet. Phänomenologisch hat der Mensch a posteriori physische (somatische), psychische(perceptio, emotio, cognitio), mentale (logische), spirituelle (conscientia, volitio, actio) "Sphären". Ontologisch in Kontext von to ti en einai (Aristoteles) sollte der Mensch a priori ein "Programm" (Information) vor der Kosmogonie haben. Der (Neo‐) Positivismus (z.B. Hume bis Carnap, Russel*; * Nobel Laureate) verwirft Fragen der Metaphysik als Scheinprobleme. Damit bleibt das Menschen‐Wesen in Kontext von Postulaten, wie res cogitans (Descartes), Monaden(Leibniz), "Gott, Freiheit, Unsterblichkeit", Seligkeit und (moralischer) Vollkommenheit (Kant), absoluter Geist (Hegel) in der theologischen Dimension. Antwort könnte eine zukünftige (holistisch‐multidimensionale) philosophische theoretische und Experimentaltheologie (kontrollierbare Beobachtung) durch weitere Forschung geben, in Kontext (bzw. Existenz) von A. Physikotheologie bzw. (a) höhere (als drei) geometrische/physikalische Dimensionen (Hilbert, Riemann /Friedmann, Minkowski, Schmutzer), (b) Paralleluniversen (z.B. L. Randall), (c) Quantentheorie/‐philosophie (Planck*, u.a.), (d) Gravitations‐/Relativitätstheorie (Newton/Einstein*), (e) Vakuumenergie (Sato), etc. B. ChemoBiotheologie bzw. "psychischen" (Fechner) und "spezifischen" (Joh. Müller) Energien,"biologischem Feld" (Gurwitsch), künstlicher Biogenese (Oparin, Fox, Urey*, u.a.; 32 Fragen von John Bernal). C. Psychotheologie bzw. parapsychische Phänomene (Carrel*, Richet*/France, Rhinne/USA, Vassilev, Bechterew/Russia, etc.). D. Religionstheologie: (über‐) Bewußtsein, übersinnliche, immaterielle, supraphysikalische Phänomene (Sri Aurobindo, Dalai Lama*, Konfuzius/Laotse, Gopi Krishna, Papst Benedikt, Paramahansa Yogananda, Sri Yogendra, etc.)und ihre physiologische Begründung (Anand/Chinna, Kasamatsu/Hirai, Ornstein, Pauli*, von Weizsäcker, etc.). Damit hängt die ontologische Frage nach dem MenschenWesen mit der Lösung des Problemkomplexes "Gott Geist/Seele Mensch Natur" zusammen.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Veit-Justus Rollmann Rechtskraft als Friedensbedingung –Thomas Hobbes rechtsphilosophischer Ansatz in seiner Schrift Vom Bürger
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Purpose of this paper is to show, that within the Hobbesian Philosophy of law and state the establishment of legal force can be considered to be a conditio sine qua non for a persistent state of peace. In this regard legal force is to be understood not only as a power able to legislate but also to guarantee the abidance of the law by means of coercive power. As a result of this point of view on legal force as a necessary condition for peace and security, arises furthermore the conceptof legal force as condition of culture. This paper traces the central claims of Thomas Hobbes’ highly influential theory of the origination of state and law pointed out in the first chapters of De Cive, a writing that is part of Hobbes Elements of Philosophy. To this aforementioned theory belongs the Hobbesian conception of the so called state of nature as a legal vacuum and a status of absolute freedom of every individual. Furthermore the war of everyone against everyone as a consequence of this absence of legal force and finally the subjects comprehension in the uselessness of absolute freedom which leads to war and instead of this the decision to abandon specific rights and to subrogate those rights to an elected sovereign. The decision to leave the state of nature and hence war and search peace instead which is granted by the legislative and executive power of the sovereign is according to Hobbes the ultimate dictate of reason. Additionally to the first chapters of De Cive I refer to some passages of Hobbes chief work Leviathan.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Markus Wirtz Interkulturelle Beziehungen zwischen Religionen und Philosophien im 21. Jahrhundert
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The paper deals with the problem how the relation between religions and philosophies can be thought in our contemporary world of technical and economocial globalization and intercultural connection of all world regions. In a first step, seven types of possible relations between spiritual and rational discourses are distinguished: From a philosophical point of view, two different models of separation and two different models of union between philosophy and religion are pointed out. From a religious perspective, the possible relations to philosophy can be described by the models of (1) exclusivm, (2) inklusivm and (3) a religiousform which negates a clear separation between spiritual and rational methods of finding the truth. Based on this systematic clearification, two arguments, in a second step, are developed from an intercultural perspective: 1) Each religion implies ontological and ethical presuppositions which can be brought into terms by philosophy. It is this philosophical explanation that allows a religion to be rationally discussed. 2) The transcultural character of a religion depends on its capacity to integrate philosophical thinking. Only by means of rational discussion, a spiritual system can become a transcultural power which contributes to adeeper understanding between different cultures.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Shin-Ja Kim Medizinische Werte des Hippokratismus und Wertfreiheit der Biomedizin
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The Hippocratism formulated the fundamental principles of medical action. It also includes the mental attitude of the doctor. The central point of medical postulate is the benefit to end suffering. The responsibility of the doctor contains the medical art as a foreground, and the ethical attitude of the physician as a background. The medical art is the purpose and the provision of medicine, and applies in all areas to sick people. The key points are the veneration of ethical values and the full respect for the life of the individual. The Hippocratic values are based on the medical art and on the ethical attitude of the doctor and thus embody humanity. The transformation of high industrialized and pluralistic society led to changes in the basic ethical stance and the value awareness of thescientific world. The Biomedical sciences present the variety of ways using the freedom of research. The Biomedical technology and its applications, such as gene therapy, research on embryos and reproductive cloning, develop new ideas and their implementation for the people. The Biomedical sciences tend to Wertfreiheit. As a consequence the real output values of medicine are in question. At present, the Biomedical sciences are opposed to ethics because of their bold attempts in research. The consensus between medicine and ethics is a necessity, because ethics are a point of support of medicine.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Sang-bong Kim Homo resistens Menschenbild von einem 20Jh. Koreanischen Philosophen
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Joji Yorikawa Aus einer Interkulturellen Perspektive
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The question is: How did the Japanese Hegel's philosophy receive and criticize? On the way of an argument with the topic "The Japanese philosophy and Hegel" I want to show that Hegel represent a junction in the western philosophies and his ideas were transformed later especially within the ranges of humanities for understanding new developments. If the Hegel- interpretation is today again in a transitional situation, and if Hegel's work shows us in its effect even always new perspectives, then we will be recalled that not only Hegel's understanding the world and the scientific system, but also later receptions of the philosophical tradition have each conditional temporary borders, in addition, possibilities.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Stephanie Over Notion and Structure of Art in Hegel’s Aesthetics
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This study will focus on a systematic exemplification of the notion of art and artwork based on Hegels aesthetics. It opposes two forms of skepticism which (1) question the possibility and value of a definition of art and (2) reject the category of the artwork for art is regarded as a process rather than a material thing. As such it is no longer something that can be conceived by seeing, hearing or touching the end product of that process. The criticism of these postions results in an understanding of works of art as objects or processes with a specific structure of meaning. The study developes ideas which are related to Hegel's thought, insofar as Hegel regards the artwork as an expression of the ‘idea’, and the term ‘idea’ designates a complex semantic structure.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Natascha Gruber The Transformation of the Concept of the “Transcendental” in Anglo-American Analytic Philosophy
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My presentation deals with developments and transformations of the concept of the transcendental within Anglo-American analytical philosophy. According to Kant – the “founding father” of transcendental philosophy – the methodical domain of the transcendental is to denote and to expose the a priori epistemic structureof human mind and cognition (perception, experience, knowledge), as well as to provide a priori foundations for normative ethics. Analytical philosophy has adopted the term of the transcendental, mostly within sceptical argumentations or for sceptical refutations. What is the methodological function of the transcendental in these debates, in the context of philosophical scepticism? My contribution tries to show that the notion of the transcendental becomes concave in analytical contexts. It might be appropriate to refute scepticism, but in these analytical contexts it’s not possible to deduct epistemic structures (e.g. categories,epistemic schemes) of experience and knowledge or to bridge the gap to foundations in ethics – one of the core goals in Kantian transcendental philosophy. What is the importance in transcendental analysis and reflection or is this term obsolete all together nowadays? My paper tries to discuss and mediate between various positions and ideas.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Hye-Jin Lee Eine andere Art von Gefühl der Lust beim Kantischen Geschmacksurteil
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Kant points out the pleasure of the universal communicability of the judgment of taste in the 7th passage of § 9 in the Critique of Judgment. He promises to discuss the subject in a transcendental context further after discussing the Deduction of Pure Aesthetic Judgments. However, he seems to limit his discussion only in an empirical context, neglecting his own commitment. I differentiate the kind of pleasure (which Kant mentioned in the 7th passage) from the intrinsic pleasure of the pure judgment of taste. The latter refers the pleasure in 'the harmonious play of the cognitive powers' stimulated by 'the merely formal purposiveness of a representation of an object'. It seems to have been overlooked that the pleasure of the universal communicability is independent from the intrinsic pleasure of the pure judgment of taste. My goal is to define the another feeling of pleasure by focusing on the analysis of the § 42 where Kant discussesthe possibility of one's interest combined with a pure judgment of taste. I come to the conclusion that another feeling of pleasure is a sort of practical pleasure. It is an interested pleasure in fulfilling the notion of generalizability of one’s state of mind, which is relevant to a moral judgment. Therefore, such pleasure is not actually common to everyone, as Kant insists in § 42, but restricted to those who have already developed the moral interest.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 19
Rolf Elberfeld Transformatitve Phänomenologie Neue Denkwege zwischen Asien und Europa
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The approach of a "transformative phenomenology" was wonfrom a comprehensive analysis of Asien philosophies. In most Asianphilosophies the knowledge about life is not only a descriptive onebut rather a transformative knowledge. This means that the analysisof the life changes and realizes our life in a new way and transformsit from within. It is tried in using the approach of eastasienphilosophies as an startingpoint to deepen and transform certaintrends of phenomenology. Going beyond a "descriptive" and"hermeneutical phenomenology" a "transformative phenomenology"is proposed in which the process of its own execution will be aconstitutive element of the method itself. The analysis of phenomenaisn't longer an act of pure objectivation but a transformation for myperception and existence. The transformation which is performed bythe phenomenological work is in this way always connected with myway to live. In the work I encounter my own experience with allpossible consequences which an intensive meeting can have.Phenomenology don't mean any longer to describe phenomena as a"pure spectator" but transform myself as a process of Bildung withinthe encounter with my own social, bodily and thinking experience.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 19
Rihards Kūlis Kant und das Problem der Lebenswelt
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Der Vortrag hat folgendes zum Ziel – das Dasein und die Universalität der Lebenswelt-Problematik sogar in solchen Fällen zu betonen, wenn sie vom philosophischen Grundeinschlag und der Orientierung auf eine streng wissen¬schaftliche Weltsicht sowie Bildung der entsprechenden theoretischen Konstruktionen scheinbar ausgeschlossen wird, wie es in der Philosophie I. Kants der Fall ist. In diesem Vortrag möchte ich über Lebenswelt als eine primäre, theoretisch unreflektierte Struktur der Weltauffassung und Weltsicht sprechen, die selbst wissenschaftlich-theoretischen Konstruktionen zugrunde liegt. Es besteht kein Zweifel daran, dass die Lebenswelt ausschliesslich von einer Ganzheit historisch wandelbarer Phänomene, einem eigenartigen “historischen aapriori” gebildet werden kann. Mein Vortrag richtet sich gegen den Partikularisierungsprozess und die antiratio-nalistischen Tendenzen im Postmodernismus, gegen Versuchungen das Allgemeine (d. i., auch die Lebenswelt) in beliebigen Äußerungsformen zu verleugnen.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 19
Elba M. Coleclough Genesis Passive and Time's Consciousness in E. Husserl: Its Importance in Early Relations
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Undoubtedly, Edmund Husserl's work is one of the most important contributions to the philosophy of the Twentieth Century to the field of culture, specifically influence on the formation of a new psychiatric - psychological paradigm embodied in the phenomenological psychology and psychiatry - existential. Thispaper aims to draw a brief introduction to the issues concerning the constitution originating from the life of the subject as the psychological level of objectivity and intersubjectivity, with emphasis on aspects related to the synthetic processes taking place in the Genesis passive. Highlight how interesting from the notion ofintentionality of consciousness phenomenological analysis husserliano realizes the formation of the conscience of the time, the embodiment of the spatiality and intersubjectivity whose origin lies in the synthetic processes taking place since preyoica instinctive affection in intrauterine life.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 2
Andree Hahmann Die Stoische Kritik an der Aristotelischen Ursachenlehre
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Already in antiquity the Aristotelian Philosophy was under attack by its philosophical opponents. The Stoics can surely be counted to the most important ones. Furthermore they can be regarded as one of the most influential philosophy schools of the Hellenistic time and in the early Roman Empire and their influenceeven on modern thinkers must not be neglected. It is well known that the Stoics not only advocated a physical monism but can also be described as determinists or, from a modern point of view, even as compatibilists because they were the first who tried to harmonize moral responsibility with the thesis of a causal determinism. Therefore, the stoic concept of causality is of vast importance. In one of Seneca’s books a discussion of the Aristotelian theory of causality has come down to us. Although it is a quite short passage it proves itself to be very illuminating. This paper wants to shed light on the differences between the Aristotelian and the Stoic theory of causality and therefore help to clarify the historical background of the modern concept of causality which is of intense importance for the actual discussion about free will and determinism.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Michael Ch. Michailov, Eva Neu, Michael Schratz Integralanthropologie in Kontext von Immanuel Kant
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The central question: "What is the Human?" is since Platon till today not answered. Kant distinguishes a physiological and a pragmatic anthropology: The Human knows the nature by senses, but himself by "pure apperception ... from physical determinations independently personality (homo noumenon) ..., different to ... (homo phenomenon)". Kant's idea of the anthropology according to R. Brandt is a holistic totality with three spheres: phenomenal, pragmatic and moral-teleological. The philosophical (Gelen, Scheler), pedagogical (Roth, etc.), medical (V. von Weizsäcker, etc.), also the new anthropology of Gadamer/Vogler considers the human multidimensional, but not enough holistic [Lit.: Michailov, Neu: Soc. Resp. Philos. In: Proc. 21st World Congr. Philos. Istanbul. Press FISP279‐280, 2003; J. Psychosom. Res. 58/6, 85‐86, 2005]. CONCEPTION: Philosophy as "the unique science, which considers a systematic interdependence and gives all other sciences a systematic unity" (Kant) in co-operation with the anthropological sciences could create an integral anthropology, i.e. a general - philosophical (normative), pedagogical (educative), medical (prophylactic/curative), based on a special anthropology (from biological to theological). The last oneshall consider the human [with his "spheres" somatic, psychical, mental/logical, philosophical (epistemology, ethics, aesthetics), spiritual/theological-metaphysical: individual] as well as his interaction with environment and society (natural, social anthropology) on the last level of knowledge, also under consideration of the big cultures – Brahmanism, Buddhism, Christianism, Confucianism, Mohammedanism. CONCLUSION: An integral anthropology could give the way for a transformation of the "false programmed" (Steinbuch) "homo actualis" (Binswanger) by society, i.e. "zoon politicon" (Aristoteles), into a homo sanus, humanus et spiritualis (in context of illumination and perfection/Kant). Scientific and political support of anthropological research is conditio sine qua non for realization of UNO-Agenda 21, which aims are better health, education, ecology, economy in all countries.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Wei-Ding Tsai On the Linguistic Philosophical Foundation for the Ontological Shift of Hermeneutics
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This research tried to make a contribution to the discussion around the conditions, under which the ontological shift of the philosophical hermeneutics can be done. It began with an analysis of Gadamer's well-known formula: " Being that can be understood is language. (Sein, das verstanden werden kann, ist Sprache.)". Scholars interpret it differently. By means of the grammatical analysis, I showed on the one hand an interpretation of the formula from the perspective of pan‐lingualism as absurd, because they regard Being and language as identical. On the other hand, an interpretation from the perspective of the linguistic ontology should be eliminated, according to which the being possesses a linguistic character, so that its unconcealment can complete itself without the effort ofunderstanding. The two interpretations come from a misunderstanding that they regard the subordinate clause of that formula as descriptive relative clause. There is still another interpretive problem, if we regard the subordinate clause as restrictive relative clause and thus interpret Gadamer's theory as linguistic idealism. However Gadamer indicates that such an interpretation remains on the level of German idealism, because it limits understanding to an intellectual grasping. Another reading of the subordinate clause as restrictive relative clause is appropriate, because it takes understanding as a practical ability (Können) into its consideration and at the same time emphasizes the non-identity between Being and language despite their ontological inseparableness. Gadamer finds out a linguistic theory, in order to support such kind of reading. He extends his principle of aesthetic non-differentiation to the range of language. By means of thislinguistic non-differentiation, the ontological shift of the hermeneutics can complete itself.
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 25
Jin-Oh Lee Jaspers und die philosophische Praxis in Korea
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Mit dem oben genannten Thema will ich darstellen, dass Jaspers’ Philosophie, die ehemals in Korea sehr beliebt war, aber heute fast in Vergessenheit geraten ist, mit ihren Ansätzen in Bezug auf die philosophische Praxis ihre philosophische Bedeutung in Korea wieder unter Beweis stellen kann.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Sinan Ozbek Tod ohne Trauer: Versuch einer philosophischen Analyse des Ehrenmordes
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Ehrenmord ist eine nicht selten vorkommende Tat in der Turkei. Mit fortgesetzter Wanderung in die großen Städte der Türkei und ins Ausland, wird dieses Phänomen auch in andere Regionen getragen. Daher setzt sich auch die Öffentlichkeit in zunehmenden Maße mit dieser Thematik auseinander. In diesem Artikel wird versucht, den Ehrenmord unter philosophischen Gesichtspunkten zu erklären.Hierzu werden Gedanken Engels, Butlers, Foucaults, Levi Strauss’ und auch weitere bedeutende Forschungsarbeiten zum Thema Selbstmord hinzugezogen.
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Eiji Makino Kulturphilosophe und die Kritik der gefühlsreichen Vernunft
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This discourse aims to consider the relationship between culture and emotion in light of cultural philosophy by analyzing the sublime emotion,which is an emotional expression of human beings. Firstly,consideration will be given to the necessity of analyzing the sublime emotion in terms of the cultural,social and political aspects of present-day Japan. Secondly, the double-barreled characteristics of the sublime emotion, which have been lost amidst the globalizing trends of the day, will be clarified. In this regard, in particular, I would like to shed light on the relationship between the sublime emotion and the critique of postcolonial reason. Thirdly, through these considerations, the fact that the sublime emotion has diverse functions in its historical and social contexts will be elucidated. I will first examine the negative meaning of the sublime emotion throught a critique of emotional reason, and then focus my attention to the positive meaning of the sublime emotion with the aim of considering the relationships between conditions of sublime potential and others. Fourthly, efforts will be made to pursure the method of reconciliation between the universalisitic, essentialist statements and the relativistic, constructivist statements, using the critique of emotional reason. In conclusion, I will elaborate on the sublime and critical functions based on emotional reason from a pluralistic standpoint.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Gerd Gerhardt Zum Begriff und zur Ordnung von Werten, Normen und Tugenden
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On Concept and Order of Values, Norms and Virtues Based on the well known change of values during the last 30 years and the alleged necessity of values education the concept of value will be distinguished from the concepts of norm and virtue. Then a list of values, norms and virtues is presented - tabulated according several spheres of life. This overview provokes the question, what the fundamental and essential in this order is.
20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Josef Bordat Menschenrechtskrieg und Menschenrechtserziehung
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To ensure the protection of the human rights, the role of world community, confronted with a new kind of military violence and terrorism, is discussed under the concepts reaction and prevention, for on the one hand there is the attempt to protect human rights by humanitarian interventionism, that leads to so called “human rights wars” (Beck), on the other hand the UNO shows increasing efforts in preventative means like “human rights education”. These two aspects shall be discussed in the article by analyzing particularly the report The Responsibility To Protect (2001) by the International Commission on Intervention and StateSovereignty (ICISS) as well as the latest activities and plans of the United Nations concerning human rights education.