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121. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Harshakumari Sarvaiya CSR for HR: Embedding CSR in Workplace Practices
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Based on data from interviews with CSR and HR professionals, this paper discusses possibilities for embedding corporate social responsibility (CSR) into human resource management (HRM). It examines how employee-related aspects can be addressed under the remit of CSR and how such interfaces work. Further, it argues that although HRM is responsible for employee issues such as diversity, equality, work-life balance, CSR has some implications for HRM. Thus, CSR helps to embed the social and ethical concerns of employees within HRM policies and practices and promotes socially responsible HRM. However, such a relationship is subject to CSR-related variables, such as the scope of CSR and variation among industries. If these factors are not favourable,disconnections may exist between CSR and HRM.
122. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Duane Windsor Corporate Social Responsibility: Defining the Societal Dimension
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This paper addresses the 2014 conference theme in aiming to define the “societal” dimension. The key finding is that society is a vague and contestable term. A societal dimension maintains CSR against reductionoriented substitutes such as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder theory. Literaturesuggests five conceptions. (1) Society might be decomposed into external stakeholders of a firm with differing salience. (2) Another approach is internal to the firm: managers have pro-CSR or anti-CSR values shaping salience. (3) A third approach combines external and internal considerations: all stakeholders pressure top management. (4) Society is an aggregation of interests possessing theoretically informed prioritization independent of relative power and of specific stakeholder status. (5) Public policy is not necessarily reflective of society in either the prioritization sense or a general will sense, but might reflect bare majority opinion exercised through governmental arrangements. A hybrid solution combines virtuous managers and external controls.
123. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Patcharaporn Bunlueng, Ken Butcher, Liz Fredline Local Communities’ Perceptions of Hotel Activities in Corporate Social Responsibility
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) continues to attract interest from tourism businesses, and many hotel companies are now substantially engaged in social and environmental responsibilities. This paper investigated local community perceptions of hotels undertaking CSR activities in provincial areas of Thailand. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with local community members. Results show a hotel’s CSR activities had been perceived to affect local communities’ quality of life (QOL), which influences their perception of the hotels and CSR activities.
124. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Thomas André Corporate Social Responsibility Boosts Value Creation at the Base of the Pyramid
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Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have embraced the possibility to find growth opportunities by targeting the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) segment, while contributing to alleviate poverty. Taking stock of the notorious early BoP initiatives that were relegated to philanthropic programs highlights a tension to combine both societal and financial sustainability. The paper questions why and how MNEs reposition the value creation of their BoP initiatives in regards of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy. We provide an empirical analysis of present BoP initiatives, based on a multiple-case study of seven MNEs’ initiatives and seventeen of their projects. The paper highlights three levels of CSR engagement at the firm level, which will translate into different strategies,organisations and types of value creation for BoP initiatives. We deliver novel insights for the study of the “business cases” of BoP strategies, which aim at gaining legitimacy, incubating strategic change and reaching profitable growth.
125. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Malcolm McIntosh, Sandra Waddock, R. Edward Freeman, Orcid-ID Chellie Spiller, Edwina Pio Evolution, Shamans, and Adaptation: What Is/Could Be the Role of Academics in System Change? A Workshop
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We describe a workshop that issued a call to action for and as academics through the work of intellectual shamanism and wayfinding so that we can do the work of healing, connecting, and sensemaking—and providing hope—that we believe is needed in the world today.
126. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
John Holcomb, Stephen Schlieman Corporate Governance: The Roles and Importance of Board Committees on Legal Compliance and Ethics
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This paper examines the extent and formation of legal compliance and ethics committees on the corporate boards of the top 200 companies within the Fortune 500. It first suggests possible reasons for the formation of such committees, including heightened legal exposure, overburdened audit committees, and legal incentives that reward companies for effective efforts to establish and monitor internal controls. The paper secondly examines the more prevalent existence of public responsibility committees of corporate boards and explains their jurisdiction and responsibilities. Thirdly, the paper examines the presence of women on audit committees, versus less powerful committees, in order to ascertain their real power in corporate governance.
127. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
James Weber, Anke Arnaud SYMPOSIUM – Victor and Cullen’s Ethical Work Climate Construct Revisited: Emerging Themes and Research Questions
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This symposium focuses on theoretical, methodological and empirical advances to the ethical work climate (EWC) construct introduced by Victor and Cullen (1988). James Weber proposes a new, stronger, inherently normative, and more empirically viable theoretical framework for identifying and understanding EWCs.Anke Arnaud adds collective moral values to the original Arnaud and Schminke (2011) model, where collective moral values give rise to EWCs and interact with collective moral emotions to affect the relationship between EWCs and ethical behavior. (Two other authors presented their ideas as part of this symposium at the 2014 IABS Conference: Craig VanSandt combined the focus on managerial orientations with the observation that different types of organizations will likely have different EWCs by incorporating “dominant logics” and the Mental Model Style Survey; and Satish Deshpande emphasized addressing the research gap focusing on the impact of organizational factors on ethical decision-making and turns to China and the impact of guanxi and ethical dissolution within an organization for his empirical exploration. The Van Sandt and Deshpande essays are not included in this Proceedings.)
128. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Andrew Crane, Bryan W. Husted, Hari Bapuji, Robbin Derry Income Inequality in Business and Society Research
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Income inequality research in the business and society field is incipient. This workshop gathered relevant scholars in order to share current interests as well as to define future directions for research. Three groups discussed theory and methods, stakeholders and the value chain, and developing-country issues.
129. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Robert Mitchell, Ben Wooliscroft, James Higham Investigating the Place of Stakeholder Relationship Management in an Institutional Sustainability Orientation
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Academic research into the application of sustainable development principles in organisation management has concentrated on how environmental responsibility advances competitiveness, economic efficiency and profitability. There has been comparatively little assessment of the value of managed social relationships as part of an institutional sustainability orientation. This paper draws on exploratory research investigating the value of a sustainable market orientation in strategy management. The research context is organisations operating in the economically important New Zealand tourism sector. In-depth interviews were conducted providing rich data from business, government and community stakeholders. Findings indicate that synergies occur through formalintegration of a social orientation with economic and environmental management. This suggests that improved outcomes would result from using a management model such as sustainable market orientation (SMO). Implications include: planning and implementing constructive and principled coordination of institutional of social relationships to assure resources for socially and economically important enterprises, applying equity in business and governmentresponsiveness to stakeholder needs and the imperative to adopting effective international performance and reporting frameworks for sustainability oriented management. The research provides a valuable foundation for further study in this domain.
130. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Janet E. Palmer, Anthony R. Grace The Homogeneity of Society: The Role of Franchising
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This paper explores the impact of franchising on society by debating both the positive and negative aspects of the business model. Research from both Australia and India reveals the role franchising has played on influencing local customs and culture. Emphasis is placed on the homogeneity of society and franchising’s role in embracing uniformity over diversity. The theory of McDonaldisation provides a framework for understanding some of the negative ways that franchising affects many aspects of society, not just the restaurant industry. Social franchising highlights the positive potential of the model. The authors’ conclude that franchising is a powerful tool that can be used for corporate profit or for social benefit. The aim of this paper is to increase discussion around the topic of franchising and its impact – positive or negative – on the homogeneity of society.
131. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Linda M. Sama, R. Mitch Casselman Ethical Foresight in Business: Interpreting Societal Cues for Better Ethical Management
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This paper applies concepts of foresight to the ethical decision-making and the strategic management of organizational ethics programs. The approach views the intersection of business and society as a permeable frontier in which there is an iterative, ongoing exchange of information between various stakeholders. We view the ethical culture of an organization as an anticipatory system in which a predictive model of the systems future plays a role in the current behavior of the participants. This suggests that network or feedback causality can provide a theoretical link between a strategic vision of a future ethical state and behavior within the current ethical culture. Using this theory we develop a model for organizational ethics programs that argues for a long-term and widely dispersed view of the organization within its environment. The theory and the resulting model suggest a role for ethical foresight as a method to stave off ethical crises of societal import and to encourage a business-society interface that is ongoing, rather than one enacted only when a major ethical disaster emerges. This redefines the business-society relationship and puts the onus on the organization to continually interpret societal cues through dialogue and interaction and to reflect on internal organizational processes and decisions that may have contributed to ethical digressions in the past.
132. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Patsy G. Lewellyn, Linda C. Rodriguez Academic Dishonesty Meets Fraud Theory: A Marriage of Convenience
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This paper demonstrates how the theoretical framework of white-collar crime, grounded in the "Fraud Triangle" provides a useful theoretical foundation for research in academic dishonesty.
133. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Javier Delgado-Ceballos, Ivan Montiel, Raquel Antolin-Lopez What Falls Under the Corporate Sustainability Umbrella? Definitions and Measures
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This literature review article aims to bring a better understanding to the field of corporate sustainability (CS) as studied by management scholars from 1995 to 2013. The authors summarize the different definitions and measures that have been adopted by management scholars working in the CS field in both academic and practitioner management journals. The results show that the CS field is still evolving and different approaches to define and measure CS have been used. Differences are also found between the literature that targets scholars versus the one targeting practitioners. The authors also provide a set of recommendations on how to advance the CS field.
134. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
Lisa DeAngelis Creating A Global Community: Facilitating Discourse Among Engaged Stakeholders
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If we are to enact a global community such as Scherer and Palazzo’s model of deliberative democracy (2011), each of the actors within this community needs to be willing to break with existing norms and beliefs and experiment with new ways of thinking, working collaboratively to achieve a common set of objectives (Austin, 2000; Mackey & Sisodia, 2012). Yet there appear to be indications that support a more neo-institutional perspective, one poised to maintain and reinforce current structures of power (Lounsbury, Fairclough, & Paul Lee, 2012). Key to enacting this global community is understanding and giving voice to the varied stakeholders (Barrett, Thomas, & Hocevar, 1995; Freeman, Wicks, & Parmar, 2004; Freeman, 1994; Hardy, Sargent, & Thomas, 2011; Obstfeld, Sutcliffe, & Weick, 2005). Critical management studies may offer a platform for exploring this as it seeks to identify alternative approaches to addressing complex issues (Banerjee, 2012) by engaging varied constituents.
135. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
John Holcomb, Katherine Wear Corporate Political Activities: Evaluating the Criteria Applied by the Center for Political Accountability in Rating Corporate Policies
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This paper examines and criticizes the criteria developed by the Center for Political Accountability (CPA) to rank the political responsibility of corporations and their response to the demands for greater disclosure of their political activities to investors. It first examines the underlying rationale for greater disclosure and offers five overall criticisms of CPA criteria, including especially five elements of corruption not included in the criteria. Based on an examination of the websites of the top 100 corporations in the CPA rankings, to ascertain the level of disclosure on those five elements of corruption, this paper then develops new scores and rankings for those corporations, which demonstrate significant changes in the original scores and rankings.
136. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
Mariana Nóbrega, Gesinaldo de Ataíde Cândido Corporate Social Performance Assessment: Stakeholder’s Perspective on a Multidimensional Approach
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Corporate Social Performance (CSP) is an important construct in business-and-society study field; yet there is a mismatch between theoretical and empirical research. This article aims at contributing to solving this problem by presenting a methodology for CSP assessment that builds on CSP theoretical grounds promoting a combined analysis of the three CSP dimensions, describing: a) motivations that lead companies to assume social responsibilities (CSR principles); b) their posture towards these responsibilities (processes of responsiveness); and c) effects of corporate actions on stakeholders (policies, programs and social impacts), from the stakeholders’ point of view. The proposed methodology is a comprehensive tool that shall provide useful insights for academia, companies and stakeholders about business-and-society relationships. Besides, it can contribute to validation and refinement of the CSP construct.
137. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
Nancy Kurland, Bobby Banerjee, Sandra Waddock, James Weber A Dialogue about Corporate Social Responsibility: Effective Guidance or Rhetorical Tool?
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In this symposium, panelists discussed the degree to which corporate social responsibility (CR) is an effective guidance or a rhetorical tool. Panelists organized their comments around three themes: the normative role of CR, descriptive outcomes of CR initiatives, and the ability of CR to effectively address contemporary global, social, economic, and ecological crises. Proceeding from a normative view, Weber contrasts a “child view” and “adult view” of CSR. Waddock argues from an instrumental perspective that current conceptions and implementations of CR are primarily ineffective rhetoric. Last, from a descriptive point of view, Banerjee discusses delusions of CR.
138. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
Mark Schwartz Ethical Decision-Making Theory: Identifying Gaps and Deficiencies
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Ethical decision-making (EDM) descriptive theoretical models often conflict with each other and typically lack comprehensiveness. This paper examines these conflicts, gaps, and deficiencies in current EDM theory which would need to be addressed in any future comprehensive EDM model. The gaps and deficiencies include the following: (1) lack of consolidation of individual EDM variables; (2) lack of broader issue-related characteristics; (3) lack of moral awareness (or amoral awareness); (4) lack of integration of intuition and emotion; and (5) lack of integration of moral rationalization. The paper concludes with its implications for future EDM descriptive theory building.
139. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
D. Kirk Davidson, Monroe Pray Jr. The Case for Complementarity in CSR: Business and Society on a Neo-Freudian Couch
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In this paper we bring a psychiatrist’s expertise – specifically using the concept of complementarity – to bear on the many seemingly irreconcilable contentious issues in the Business and Society field. Such issues are prevalent at all levels of inquiry and study in the managerial domain: for individual managers, for firms, for entire industries, and even for the capitalistic system itself. They are prevalent also for scholars in the related fields of corporate social responsibility and business ethics. An appreciation for complementarity in the study of managerial decision-making -- and here we use the word to mean the existence of two (or more) ways of perceiving a particular set of circumstances, both of which are valid, both of which are legitimate – leads to a richer and more complete under-standing of the problems facing managers and scholars. It results in less confrontation and better decision-making.
140. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2015
Linda Rodriguez, Patsy Lewellyn, Deborah Hazzard-Robinson Let’s Get Married: Tri-sector Collaborations in Small Communities: (Physical Activity & Obesity Reduction)
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This study looks to help reduce overweight and obesity in small towns by qualitatively examining public, private, and non-profit entities that possess aligned competences to form a tri-sector collaboration