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161. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Setargew Kenaw Fantaw Post-phenomenology and Cross-cultural Technology Transfer
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Don Ihde tries to conceptualize cross-cultural technology transfer within the post-phenomenological perspective. Using his concept of the multistability of technological artifacts, Ihde discusses how technologies could have a variety of uses in different contexts. When taken at the level of international technology transfer, i.e. the level where technologies move from one cultural geography to another, there will be two contexts: (i) the context where the artifact is being produced and (ii) the context into which it is moving to. Ihde’s problem lies in emphasizing the first and almost concluding with certainty that technologization is Westernization. Consequently, his theory of technology transfer, in addition to being culturalist, gives priority to the cultural context from which it was physically separated to the culture in which it has started functioning. The author of this paper critically engages this tendentiously culturalist point of view.
162. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Donghyun Son On Biological Precariousness of Human Being Seized by Digital Technology
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The cultural activities of human being are to be mediated by physical elements. These are, as a matter of fact, the natural things. There is allowed no other way for human being to realize his mental work but than in and through the nature. So, generally speaking, culture in ordinary sense consists in the human mind "objectified" in the natural reality. It remains within the boundary of human activities, which themselves cannot transcend the nature.
163. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Christopher S. Taylor On Love and the Mystic Ideologies Concerning the Human Heart
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The question of concentration, or to use a word more in tune with the true nature of this essay, the heart, of this work is to explore the constructs surrounding the very nature and essence of the human heart. By heart I mean not the organ of flesh and blood, or the muscle that pumps life through out our corporal beings. But rather I mean to speak of an emotion that exists in parallel to the spirit or soul of the human cognitive existence. I have chosen the title of this essay for a very specific reason, being that love and the human heart are two different concepts that I find to be closely related and essential for the other to exist. However, I findthat they are different and should be treated as such, for this reason I have given this essay a two-fold thesis. In that its main function will be to incorporate the idea of love with the ideologies of the human heart but also that they should be discussed separately. To most accurately address these points there will be three sections to this essay; the first will be an address on love and its meaning and purpose, the second will be in regards to the mystics of the heart, while the third will be a link between the two and act as a bridge from the psychological emotions of love to the physical and real emotions of man.
164. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Viktor Tchouechov Argument to Love: Logic and Rhetoric of Communication
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An argument to love is a verbal construction, containing appeal to human emotions and feelings. According to philosophical and rhetoric traditions, the argument is a very important means of convincing and (or) persuasion and value’scommunication. The argument to love bases on optimum internal unity of authority (and an argument to authority), good, friendship, beauty and desire of human. The argument to love demands, at least, a minimal positive value audience’s reaction to itself. An audience response to an argument to love is in direct proportion to its verbal expression. The argument to love depends on common world-view, national mentality as well as on an intellectual tradition where we are.
165. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Andrew Sneddon Locating Happiness
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Philosophers have long studied the nature of happiness and, as a consequence, have made recommendations about how to achieve it. The present paper argues that perhaps this has been a mistake. Empirical studies of happiness have been yielding important results in recent years, the implication of which is that happiness is more complex than philosophers have suspected. The crucial point is this: although very abstract and very individual-specific things can be said about happiness, there is nothing substantial that can be said about happiness in general. For practical yet general recommendations about how to achievehappiness, such an intermediate level of generality is necessary. Since it is not available, no general recommendations about happiness are possible.
166. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Trong Chuan Nguyen The Role of Philosophy in the Present Period of Globalization
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In present global period, what help men to overcome difficulties, challenges, to emancipate them from defiance and suffering of their life, to meet their long-term needs of very day live are not only economy, modern technique and high technology, but including philosophy. Philosophy helps men to find out the key not only for all-time challenges, but also for brand new problems caused by process of globalization. Philosophy either helps men to realize their real status, to have worthy life-style of human or helps them to decide purpose and ideal of their life; those in turn take part in changing reality in order just to serve them. In addition, in present global period, philosophy also assists men in choosing correct orientation for their action, to consolidate their determination in action, as well as to evaluate accurately current changes and to give them suggestion of how to go and what direction to solve problems facing their life. In the process of Doi Moi in Vietnam today, philosophy has been realizing such enormous roles.
167. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Marin Aiftincă The Part of Feeling Into Knowledge of Value
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Starting again of thesis that the value appear to us like value in self, transcendental, and value for somebody, this paper enlarging upon idea that the value is object of knowledge but different of any others objects of the reality. The knowledge of value involve a emotional constituent and other rational constituent. Advancing the judgement of value, the feeling of value is essential for detection and to converted the being of value into reality of life and culture. This part of value feeling do not put in danger the unity and eternity of value and it is very important for the knowledge and the intercultural communication in the world.
168. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Ying jian Jia On the Post-traditional Perspective of Culture and Modern Value of Chinese Traditional Culture
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Though the globalization of economics has provided us a posttraditional perspective to understand the traditional culture, it doesn’t mean that tradition has lost its special value of existence. In order to interpret Chinese traditional culture on the background of globalization, we need to re-identify its value properly to realize the combination of traditional spirit and modern idea, and then we could make the modern transformation of Chinese traditional culture possible. During the process of traditional culture’s modern transformation, the most important thing is to make the choice of seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages.
169. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Dhanpat Raj Bhandari Role of Education in Cultivation of Values
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The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. It should essentially make a man pious, perfect and truthful. The welfare of humanity lies neither in scientific or technological advancements nor in acquisition of material comforts. The main function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership founded on courage, intellectual integrity and a sense of values. Since education is a powerful instrument of social change and human progress, it is also a powerful tool to cultivate values in an individual. Therefore all the educational institutes have greater responsibility to impart learning and cultivation of values through education. For inculcating values many educationists have suggested different ideas such as : provision of value based curriculum, designing special orientation program for teachers, value based foundation courses, publication of literature based on values, necessity to develop code of conduct for teachers and students, inculcation of philosophical viewtowards life among teachers and students. Further to cultivate values among the new generations we are to design a curriculum from out of our accumulated cultural heritage.
170. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
C. L. Sheng On Career Value
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“Career value” is the name of a kind of value I used (or perhaps I coined) in my classification of value according to good things in life based on the law of nonreplaceability. I classify value into seven classes: (1) health value, (2) sentimental value, (3) economic value1, (4) belief value, (5) environmental value, (6) social value, and (7) career value. Career value refers to the extra value of the most important work, which one wants to do and actually does in one’s life time, for oneself. In Section 2, I explain the nature of career value, which is different from the natures of all other values. In Section 3, I discuss various career values themselves. Career value has several different forms, depending on the nature and size of career. Finally, I conclude that, except for economic value3 , which isunsuitable and unreasonable to be a career value, the pursuit of any kind of a nonmaterial career value is a good thing and conforms to the maximization of social utility in utilitarianism.
171. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Asokananda Prosad Embodiment of Miracle
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Belief in miracles exists more or less in all religions in all ages. The Upanishads assert that the experience of religious insight and transformation is the only "miracle" worth considering, but popular Hinduism attributes miraculous powers to the ascetic yogis. Though Buddha Gautama deprecated his own miraculous powers as devoid of spiritual significance, accounts of his miraculous birth and life were later woven into his legend and into those of later Buddhist saints. The New Testament records miracles of healing and other wonders performed by Jesus. Miracles also attest to the holiness of Christian saints. Muhammadrenounced miracles as a matter of principle (the Quran was the great miracle), but his life was later invested with miraculous details. Muslim popular religion, particularly under the influence of Sufism, abounds in miracles and wonder-working saints. Although ‘values’ speak about ideals and principles we are supposed to follow, it enumerates the standard of our mind we develop in the light of so called miracles and what it truly stands for.
172. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Lydia B. Amir Rethinking Philosophers' Responsibility
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Should philosophers address the needs of their societies? If the answer is affirmative, and if today's needs are being inadequately answered within the New Age movement for lack of viable alternatives, philosophers' minimal response could be teaching critical thinking outside the academe, and maximal response would be providing relevant wisdom for the world. The first option requires construing logic and epistemology as practical fields. The second requires reforming part of Philosophy as social thinking which provides relevant wisdom for the world. I expose here the maximal response based on an analysis of society's needs forcosmology and spirituality, the New Age Movement's role in providing for those needs, its dangers and imperviousness to criticism, and philosophers' possible responsibility for and interest in answering the needs for a synoptic vision.
173. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
T. J. Mawson The Rational Inescapability of Value Objectivism
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I argue for the rational inescapability of value objectivism, the thesis that at least some normative appraisal is not simply a matter of how, subjectively, we feel about the world; it is a matter of how, objectively, the world ought to be. I do this via a two-stage argument, the first stage of which is based around a thought experiment, the second stage of which is based on how those who reject the argument of the first stage must present their doing so to themselves if they are to consider themselves rationally justified. I sketch a way in which this argument might lead one rationally to favour moral objectivism.
174. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Kelly Sorensen Effort Expended, Effort Required, and the Theory of the Good
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One of the factors that contributes to an agent’s praiseworthiness and blameworthiness - his or her moral worth – is effort. On the one hand, agents who act effortlessly seem to have high moral worth. On the other hand, agents who act effortfully seem to have high moral worth as well. I explain this pair of intuitions and explore the contour of our views about cases in between them. This paper uses conceptual graphs for clarity and, in additional work I have done on value theory, as arguments. Conceptual graphs reflect a way of doing philosophy that is new and powerful, as reflected in work over the past several decades by Derek Parfit, Shelly Kagan, Larry Temkin, and Thomas Hurka.
175. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Larisa Kiyashchenko Body Parts and Human Identity
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Bioethics originated as a specific collective response of representatives of biomedical sciences, humanities and the public to the complexity of moral, anthropological and ontological problems (often in situations bordering on life and death) caused by the constant development of biomedical technologies. Because of this complexity ‐ these problems escape simple, universal (eternal) solutions. This makes them “finite”, multiple, dependent on the “here and now” circumstances of the choice of cognitive and communicative transdisciplinary strategies. In other words bioethics is a specific communicative practice that mediates a vast number of universal interpretations (philosophical, theological, etc.) in order to provide a contingent solution - a kind of “negotiated universality”. For example, moratorium on reproductive cloning is a negotiated contingent (open for reevaluation) solution of this moral problem. The mutual process of adjustment of new ideas and technologies to social requirements and social requirements to new ideas and technologies realizes in a form trans-disciplinary dialogue. To some extent, transdisciplinarity is experience of paradoxes. I am going to give an interpretation of a network of paradoxes.
176. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Kumiko Yoshitake The Ethical Action Principle in Decision-Making: From the Principle of Autonomy to the Principle of Consensus
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Decision-making adhering to the “principle of autonomy" takes place within the wider context of decision-making processes in modern society. Within the medical area, as regards the decision through informed consent, the patient's intention assumes vital importance. The principle of autonomy is derived from the modern thought that the essence of human being is the reason. It becomes difficult, however, to rely on decision-making based on the principle of autonomy when a person’s intention is not clear and the opinions of those who are involved differ from each other. Here, I think that the principle of consensus, which seeks the agreement of those who are concerned, becomes as important as the principle of autonomy. This paper examines the problems of certainty, reliability, andcreativity of medical action through the consideration of the principle of consensus.
177. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Sebastian Schleidgen Sustainable Development and Bioethics: Ethical Thoughts on Decisions about Establishing Biobanks
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The so-called Brundtland-Report defines Sustainable Development as a conception of intra- and intergenerational justice, which is to be realized by a globally just distribution of possibilities for satisfying basic human needs as well as by assuring such possibilities for future generations. Hence, any political and/orsocietal decision is addressed by the ethical demands of Sustainable Development insofar it affects possibilities for satisfying basic human needs. In particular, this concerns – contrary to the widespread opinion that Sustainable Development only has to deal with problems of environmental ethics – the legitimization ofbiomedical applications. After all, especially such decisions often face the problem of measuring and trading-off potential advantages and disadvantages regarding possibilities for satisfying human basic needs. Based on the example of decisions about establishing biobanks, the paper firstly will show that Sustainable Development actually demands much more from political and societal decisions than just being concerned with environmental ethics. Secondly, itwill clarify these demands in detail. Thirdly, it will address the issues of how these demands can be implemented adequately. The paper therefore will show which conditions political and/or societal decision processes have to meet in order to comply with Sustainable Development.
178. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Hisako Inaba A Comparative Case Study of American and Japanese Medical Care of a Terminally Ill Patient
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How is a terminally ill patient treated by the surrounding people in the U.S. and Japan? How does a terminally ill patient decide on his or her own treatment? These questions will be examined in a study of intensive medical care, received by a terminally ill Japanese cancer patient in the U.S. and Japan. This casereflects the participant observation by a Japanese anthropologist for about 8 years in the United States and Japan on one patient who was hospitalized in both countries on and off for about eight years. The objective of this study is to illuminate the different concept of personhood between the U.S. and Japan that appeared in different cultural practices of both countries and in the subject’s own decision making process. The significant differences appeared between theU.S. and Japan in the concepts of (1) science, (2) suffering, (3) Power of Attorney and Doisho (Consent Form), and (4) organized care. The interpretation of such differences indicates that seemingly universal practices across countries suggest cultural specific concepts and their management. Therefore, ethical norms appeared differently accordingly to each country.
179. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Heup Young Kim Sanctity of Life Dignity or Respect?: An East Asian Theological Reflection on hES Cell Debates
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The sanctity of life becomes an ambiguous and illusive notion by the advance of embryology and genetics, particularly human embryonic stem cell research. Major themes generated in North American theological and ethical discussions on this important hermeneutical theme for this century, in overall, do not seem toovercome fully their Western legacies of substantialism, individualism, anthropocentricism (dignity, person, and respect as individual entity). From an East Asian Christian perspective, the sanctity of life rather implies the imperative for a life to realize itself to the fullest end of what it ought to be. This involves the diligentpractice of sanctification and self-cultivation in respect (or mindfulness 敬). A researcher in a laboratory is also a human person who needs to engage in this rigorous practice of mindfulness. This may be the prerequisite to exercise one’s freedom to help other forms of life accomplish their imperative for self-realization Finally, the sanctity of life from an East Asian Christian perspective means a fulfillment and embodiment of the proleptic Tao, in its own freedom of life (wu-wei 無爲). After all, both science and religion are taos for life, the great openness for cosmic vitality (saeng-myeong 生命)
180. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Rui-Peng Lei Is the Use of Animal Organs for Transplants Morally Acceptable?: Debates over the Use of Animals in Xenotransplantation
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As a first step, the arguments for and against the use of animals for medical purposes in general were reviewed. These arguments are summarized briefly in the first part of the article; Secondly, even if people accept in principle the use of animals in medicine and medical research, their use in xenotransplantation mayraise particular difficulties. There are three key issues in the debate over the use of animals in xenotransplantation. The first is whether as a matter of principle, it is considered to be morally acceptable to use animals as organ or tissue source; the second is the ethical acceptability of the use of primates to supply transplant material; the third is the ethical issues raised by the use of genetically modified animals to provide organs for xenotransplantation. If it is agreed to be acceptable in principle, there are then questions to address regarding the welfare of animals within any xenotransplantation program. Finally, the author makes an attempt to discuss these ethical issues in Chinese cultural context.