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21. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Dirk Johan de Jong, Frank Jan de Graaf Institutional Entrepreneurship and CSR within Multinational SME’s: The Added Value for SME’s of Employee-oriented CSR in Foreign Subsidiaries
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This paper develops propositions on the added value for SMEs of normatively based, employee-oriented corporate social responsibility (CSR). We suggest that not only motives but also the skills of the owner/manager as an institutional entrepreneur are critical in dealing with institutional variance. Also, the transfer of employee-oriented CSR can have positive results for SMEs that could imply that globalisation is not only a race to the bottom.
22. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Marta de la Cuesta, Juan Diego Paredes, Eva Pardo Use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to Identify Material and Relevant CSR Performance Indicators
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This study focuses on the application of multicriteria decision-making techniques, specifically the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to identify corporate socialresponsibility information which both companies and stakeholders consider relevant and material. This work explains how the AHP methodology was applied in the selection of material indicators in corporate social responsibility reporting, the interpretation of these indicators and their relative importance. The results of this study are summarized in 60 indicators distributed in four areas: environment, economy, corporate governance and social. As this last area contains the greatest number of indicators, it was divided into four sub-areas (human resources, human rights, product responsibility and society).
23. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Charles Oldroyd, Johanne Grosvold, Andrew Millington Advantages and Disadvantages of Socially and environmentally sustainable Procurement Practices in the Public and Private Sectors: An Empirical Investigation
24. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Isabel Carrero, Carmen Valor Slaves of Market Information: The Relationship Between Spanish Consumers and CSR Labels
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Information asymmetries are regarded as the main obstacle for consumers to buy responsibly. CSR labels are considered the best tool to give consumers information about the brand's social and environmental performance. Yet, the information and credibility gap associated to the labels may render labels useless. This study aims to unveil the relationship of Spanish consumers with CSR labels, in order to assess the posited consequences of the information and credibility gap. To do so, 385 consumers were interviewed at the main shopping centers in Madrid. The findings support the hypothesized gaps, which leads to recommend public policies in order to improve the effectiveness of CSR labels as an information tool.
25. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Jae Hwan Lee, Ronald. K. Mitchell Towards Refining the Concept of Corporate Citizenship
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In this paper, we attempt to refine the concept of corporate citizenship. Traditionally, research on corporate citizenship has paid greater attention to corporateduties, leaving corporate rights relatively unattended in the corporate citizenship literature. However, some scholars have recently explored corporate citizenship as the corporation’s implementation of both of its respected rights and duties. Others have conceptualized the corporate citizenship concept with a specific focus on the corporation’s expansion of its new duties and rights. Integrating existing conceptualizations of corporate citizenship, we propose a refined definition of corporate citizenship as a dynamic process by which corporations implement and expand their respective corporate rights and duties.
26. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
John M. Holcomb The Gulf Oil Spill: Crisis Management, Public Policy, and Legal Liability
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This paper applies an eight-step model of crisis management to the Gulf Oil disaster and discusses potential legal liabilities for BP. The eight steps are: ascertaining the facts, portraying the problem, allocating responsibility, responding to critics, adopting new policies, implementing new procedures, utilizing political/legal tactics, and costs in money and credibility. While crisis management responses often fall into either uniformly positive or uniformly negative patterns and outcomes, the BP case falls into a more complex pattern, where the company did some things well and other things poorly, with BP making its worst mistakes in the pre-crisis stage. After examining BP’s response, the longer version of this paper examines the regulatory role and the application of the capture theory to the Minerals Management Service of the Department of Interior. That section and associated references are available upon request to the author.
27. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Elena Cavagnaro, Ngesa Fiona Sustainable Tour Operating Practices: Setting up a Case Study of Inbound Tour Operators in Kenya
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Though research on sustainable tour operating practices is increasing, its focus is mainly on large tour operators. Moreover, most research is geographically limited to Europe. Literature on inbound tour operators (ITOs) based in destination countries such as Africa is almost non-existent. In an effort to reduce the gap on literature available on sustainable tour operating in third world destinations, this research focuses on ITOs in Kenya. Its aim is to identify gaps between attitudes, intentions and behavior towards sustainable tourism of ITOs in Kenya and shade some light on how these gaps can be addressed. A dedicated questionnaire survey was developed for this research and sent out to 300 ITOs in Kenya. Moreover, 10 in-depth interviews were held. This paper describes the background of the research, both from a scholarly and management perspective, and the developed research instruments. During the IABS 2011 conference full results will be presented.
28. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Linda C. Rodríguez, Ivan Montiel A Conceptualization of How Firms Invest in CSR Based on Country Risk
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We look at the relationship of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and country risk. We conceptualize the relationship first by asking if there is a correlationand then positing the directionality of the relationship. We posit that there is an inverse or negative correlation of implicit CSR with country risk and a positive correlation between explicit CSR and country risk. Understanding this relationship can help firms respond to a variety of external pressures such as those from activist organizations and stockholder disciplining; thus, preventing firms from the need to “bolt” on CSR strategies to existing corporate strategies, as well as to help fulfill social needs within the community, mitigate political risks, and improve firm reputation.
29. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Mengying Feng Evaluation of Port Performance: Port Shareholders’ Views
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As a consequence of globalization, port performance has become increasingly important for international trade. Different ports perform differently in terms ofthroughput of cargo volume and container TEUs, as they are influenced by a number of factors. This research reviews the literature on the factors with the support of reviewing port performance indicators. The research aims to identify how different port stakeholders evaluate these factors’ importance to their port performances and how they evaluate their factor performances differently. The methodology employs a large-scale questionnaire survey in the ports of Western Europe and Eastern Asia. The findings are presented that different port stakeholders evaluate factor importance and performance differently, which implies that the relevant key port stakeholders should all be included when developing port strategy.
30. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Robbin Derry From Strategic to Sustainable Philanthropy: Corporate Giving and Community Partnerships
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This paper challenges the field to move beyond strategic philanthropy to a more encompassing concept of sustainable philanthropy. A brief history of philanthropic practices is presented, as well as a discussion of contemporary approaches to corporate philanthropy. The model of sustainable philanthropy developed here advocates integrating a triple bottom line approach with the strategic practice of corporate giving. It shifts the traditional model of powerful donor and a powerless recipient, to one where both donor and recipient must work harder to identify a partner that shares their intrinsic values and objectives. The aim of sustainable philanthropy is to establish a working partnership with broadly shared goals and openly acknowledged benefits.
31. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Robbin Derry, Leslie Bush The Global Plantation Economy: Linking Consumption and Colonies
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The motivations and methods of colonial exploration and economic dominance in the Age of Discovery offer significant lessons for today’s globalized productionsystems. Our current consumption of products grown or constructed in distant countries and transported by cheap oil to our local markets leads us to question our complicity in a contemporary global plantation economy.
32. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Naomi A. Gardberg, Donald H. Schepers, Louis Lipani Antecedents of Corporate Political Finance Disclosure
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U.S. corporations have long tried to enact a favorable business environment via political activities such as lobbying and campaign contributions. This particular strategy is receiving increased attention due to the recent Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, which establishes that corporations have the same rights with regard to political activities as individuals. In this work, we examine the nature of corporate political activity and the need for accountability; define transparency in the context of corporate political activity; and examine the antecedents for corporate political disclosure. We then test our model on the S&P 100 using an index of corporate political disclosure that we developed. We find that opportunities to participate in political activities, dependence on government contracts and prior disclosure on other topics such as the environment lead to more disclosure. The intensity of the regulatory environment appears to have no influence.
33. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Yves Fassin The Collapse of a European Bank in the Financial Crisis: Shareholder Activism and the Limits of Corporate Governance
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This paper makes an analysis of the recent collapse of Fortis, a major European bank, from the perspective of shareholder activism and social movement theory to illustrate the limits of corporate governance. Some specific issues of the Fortis affair – and more especially the chaotic events at the general assembly - illustrate the application of social movement theory to shareholder activism, besides agency theory problems and conflicts of interests. Paradoxes between legal constraints and principles of good corporate governance are presented. The Fortis case illustrates the limits of the juridical bureaucracy in situations of urgency. The case illustrates the limits of corporate governance. Governance systems need to find appropriate mechanisms to align the voting rights with the long-term interests of the company. We argue for new criteria that will restrict representation to loyal shareholders with a long-term commitment. Good governance mechanisms should prevent opportunistic behaviour and encourage a responsible attitude.
34. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Marta de la Cuesta, Carmen Valor, Francisco Pablo Holgado Evaluation of the Environmental, Social, and Governance Information Disclosed by Spanish Listed Companies
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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the quality of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) reporting of Spanish companies listed in the IBEX-35 stock index Firstly, it establishes four requisites for quality in ESG reporting. Secondly, it evaluates whether ESG reports comply with these requirements. Using a benchmark tool based on GRI3 we can conclude that the GRI has resulted in some standardization of corporate social and environmental reporting, particularly as regards to format, but their approach to indicators is unlikely to produce high quality information that is relevant, comparable, complete and accessible to all stakeholders. Also, there seems to be evidence that reporting is orientated to satisfy shareholders and investors´ demands rather than to other stakeholders´.
35. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Sharron Hunter-Rainey, Linda C. Rodríguez The Gilded Cage: Contemporary Slavery in American Professional Sports Teams
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This paper uses social capital theory to explain contemporary slavery in the context of American professional sports leagues. While traditional slavery was legallyabolished in the United States (US) during the nineteenth century, using the label slavery to describe professional athletes is often dismissed because these athletes are wellcompensated performers with access to incremental compensation through commercial endorsements. As active players, athletes have opportunities to build and leverage social capital, yet, after they retire from competition, these opportunities frequently diminish. We contend contemporary slavery exists for professional athletes and during their careers they are bound to their owners via “gilded cage” slavery, which is attractive to enter yet difficult to exit. We also contend that during this “bondage,” athletes build and maintain social capital; yet upon retirement, athletes are limited in opportunities to leverage socialcapital to improve their own situations or those of their communities.
36. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Laura Albareda Integrated Networked Governance on Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability
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The aim of the paper is to study the stages of development of corporate responsibility global standards and initiatives based on the development of integratednetworked governance. I propose a matrix based on four development stages built along a continuum and in crescendo collaboration among different global standards and multistakeholder initiatives. The research is based on the concept of the analysis of the integrated networked governance on an analysis of the Global Action Network (Waddell, 2011).
37. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Duane Windsor An Organizing Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility Theories
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This paper proposes an organizing framework that shows likely relationships among five identifiable approaches to corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR is an umbrella term embracing mandatory, expected, and voluntary activities. CSR is a contested concept, along a continuum from strong CSR through strategic CSR to zero CSR positions. The intention for the framework is to help scholars with understanding how various CSR approaches relate to one another. The organizing framework is explicated in Figure 2.
38. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Jacqueline N. Hood, Jeanne M. Logsdon Challenges That Employees with Personality Disorders Pose for Ethics and Compliance in Organizations
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Personality-disordered individuals of certain types tend to exhibit behaviors that cause particular problems for the Ethics and Compliance (E&C) function inorganizations. This paper defines personality-disordered individuals and focuses on three types that might create such problems: the psychopath, the narcissist, and the obsessivecompulsive personality. We provide a working hypothesis about the problems that they may cause in organizations and then report the results of an exploratory study of E&C personnel. The paper concludes with recommendations for managers and for future research.
39. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Cynthia E. Clark, Jennifer J. Griffin Issues-Driven Shareholder Activism
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Issues-driven shareholder activism suggests that specific issue characteristics brought by shareholders, a group to which firms are obligated to respond, interact in a way that affects the materiality of the issue in the eyes of the modern corporation. Relevant issue characteristics include: issue type, social significance, and issue life cycle stage.
40. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Craig Dunn, Rich Brown Beyond the Mind: Exploring Business Ethics Utilizing the Principles of Kinesthetics Through Devised Theater
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Within the academic community there has been debate around whether business ethics should be taught as a stand-alone course or rather integrated across the business curriculum. A different tack is taken here as we head in the direction of integrating business ethics beyond the traditional bounds of the business curriculum and into theatre arts. The collaboration outlined herein was established when an inter-College alliance was formed to create the devised play Cheat, a mainstage theatre production for Western Washington University (WWU), in which theatre became the ground and moral theory from business ethics became the figure. The following is a detailed deconstruction of the variety of ways in which business ethics concepts and models informed the construction of Cheat.