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21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Hee Kwon Chin The Principle of Nature and the Natural Law of Confucianism
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In 'Yeogi (禮記)', the Chinese scriptures of Confucianism, they recoded the solar calendar of modern viewpoints. According to the ancient document, the 24 solar terms was one of seasonal divisions in a year. The regularly change of the four seasons play an important part in the national economic project. For a national economy depended on agriculture in East Asia of ancient times, the administration to pay no regard to the change of the season was directly connected to the fall of the nation. And then the legislator must enact laws to reflect the change of the season. According to the 'Wolryeong (月令)' in 'Yeogi (禮記)', there is recoded national regulations to suit with the each twelve momth. The first month of spring is the prime of the year (February). The month shows sign of new livingthings. The ruler take order to protect the first breath of spring and ought to put a ban on the military training and labor mobilization. The reasons are to safeguard the new life and not to interrupt the preparation for farming. Confucian attach value to the nature within a human’s way of life. Therefore the norm of human do correlate closely with the principle of nature. The rule of Wuju (宇宙) was not a simple concept of the natural phenomenon and Cheon (天) was not the Almighty for himself. Cheon was just the existence of virtue and moral influence in the confidence of man. And Ji (地) was the Mother of all things. In this space man had to manage the world in sympathy with the process of cheonJi (天地); Cheonsi (天時), JIri (地利), Inhwa (人和).
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Alexander Nikitin Terrorism / Anti-Terrorism Dialectics and its Impact onto the Principles of International Law and International Relations
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Consequences of world-scale anti-terrorism campaign (which included pre-emptive and coercive regime changes in Afghanistan and Iraq) equaled to or even exceeded consequences of the terrorist challenge itself, and must be analyzed as dialectically interfaced dual factor influencing international politics and law. This dual factor changes basic rules of international relations through wider employment of the principle of pre-emption (retaliation against perceived intentions, rather than against actions), and further blurring of national sovereignty resulting from more coercive interference of the international community into domestic affairs of certain states and societies. Counter-terrorism is philosophically interpreted internationally as reestablishment and strengthening of the monopoly of a state onto use of force, while terrorism is accused for illegal use of force “for private political purposes”. Counter-terrorist practices return previously missing severe coercive sanctions in the international law, and are implemented on behalf of the international community. The problem is to assure both legality and legitimacy of applied measures, especially in situation when major world powers’ interests are split in elaboration of the UN SC decisions authorizing the internationalinterference into sovereign affairs of states. In fact, the very field of counter-terrorism becomes a field for projection and juxtaposing pragmatic interests of world powers. Classical contradiction between international law based on values and principles and pragmatic politics based on interests re-emerges in the area of terrorist challenges/antiterrorist responses. Counter-terrorist practices require as much legal regulation as do terrorist challenges themselves.
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Rodney G. Peffer The U.S. War in Iraq, Just War Theory and Neoconservatism
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Given certain well-known empirical facts–including the Bush II administration’s motivations and its actions initiating the war – the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 (and its continuing war of occupation) is not just (i.e., is not morally justified), on any standard interpretation of Just War Theory criteria for jus ad bellum. Since there was no imminent threat of attack by Iraq against the U.S., the U.S. invasion of Iraq was a Preventative or Merely Precautionary War (which is notrecognized by either Just War Theory or international law as a legitimate basis for initiating a war) rather than a Preemptive War (which may sometimes be justified, if there is a real threat of imminent attack) or a Reactive War (responding to an unjustified attack from an aggressor, which is always justified). Moreover, the neo-conservative program for perpetual U.S. world domination by the weakening of other nations and the invasions of weaker nations for purposes of U.S. economic and geopolitical advantage (behind the facade of “spreading democracy and freedom”) is not morally justified. However, the moral status of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan is much less clear. Many argue that is was morally justified according to both Just War Theory and international law, given certain well-established empirical facts; particularly, al-Qaeda’s involvement with the events of 9-11 and the Taliban government’s protection of al-Qaeda and its terrorist infrastructure within Afghanistan. On this analysis, the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan was justified as both a Reactive War (responding to an unjustified attack against primarily civilian targets) and a Preemptive War (to try to make sure that al-Qaeda did not have the opportunity to use its infrastructure in Afghanistan to arrange other attacks on civilian targets in the U.S. or other nations). But the cogency of this analysis depends on whether there were any realistic alternatives fordisrupting al-Qaeda and bringing its leaders to justice; and some argue that such alternatives did exist. Moreover, even if U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan was morally justified it is arguable that the amount and type of force used – e.g. intensive, wide-spread bombing campaigns that killed many civilians – were not justified.
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Cristian Rojas, Marco Galetta Juridical Interpretation of Venezuelan Legislation
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The objective of this research is to examine the legal interpretation that is applied to the Venezuelan law. To this effect, this work departs from Article 4º of the Venezuelan Civil Code (VCC) that establishes the methods and principles for interpreting Venezuelan law. Similarly, it presents research and explains whatlegal interpretation means and what is interpreted in legal matters.
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Харабет Константин Принцип дополнительности и его методологическое значение для криминологии
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В условиях современного общества эпохи глобализации, характеризующегося признаками и одновременного требованиями культурного разнообразия и цивилизационного единства, особую опасность представляют такие угрозы безопасности как преступность, наркотизм, терроризм. Важной задачей криминологии как фундаментальной юридической науки, обеспечивающей научную разработку основ борьбы с преступностью, является организация научных исследований, позволяющих сформулировать адекватные криминальным угрозам стратегии борьбы ипрофилактики. В этой связи несомненной ценностью обладает осмысление юристами философских общенаучных принципов познания, в том числе – принципа дополнительности Нильса Бора. Его применение в криминологических исследованиях приводит к необходимости решения задачи расширения и гармонизации тезауруса, описывающего преступность и задачи комплексного изучения преступности и ее фоновых явлений, в т.ч. ихпротивоположных сторон, посредством создания единого научного языка.
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Gülriz Uygur The Relationship between Law and Morality from the Internal Point of View
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This article insists on the relationship between law and morality from the internal point of view. H.L.A. Hart makes distinction between internal and external viewpoints. In the framework of Hart’s approach, it is difficult to imagine the internal point of view as a moral point of view. In fact, the internal point of view illuminates the normative character of rules; it shows that the members of the group accept the rules as standards of behavior for the group as a whole. To explain the internal point of view which includes also moral view, we should leave Hart’s definition. But we may use his definition as accepting and using a rule. For this, we should question the meaning of accepting a rule and using a rule.
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Veit-Justus Rollmann Rechtskraft als Friedensbedingung –Thomas Hobbes rechtsphilosophischer Ansatz in seiner Schrift Vom Bürger
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Purpose of this paper is to show, that within the Hobbesian Philosophy of law and state the establishment of legal force can be considered to be a conditio sine qua non for a persistent state of peace. In this regard legal force is to be understood not only as a power able to legislate but also to guarantee the abidance of the law by means of coercive power. As a result of this point of view on legal force as a necessary condition for peace and security, arises furthermore the conceptof legal force as condition of culture. This paper traces the central claims of Thomas Hobbes’ highly influential theory of the origination of state and law pointed out in the first chapters of De Cive, a writing that is part of Hobbes Elements of Philosophy. To this aforementioned theory belongs the Hobbesian conception of the so called state of nature as a legal vacuum and a status of absolute freedom of every individual. Furthermore the war of everyone against everyone as a consequence of this absence of legal force and finally the subjects comprehension in the uselessness of absolute freedom which leads to war and instead of this the decision to abandon specific rights and to subrogate those rights to an elected sovereign. The decision to leave the state of nature and hence war and search peace instead which is granted by the legislative and executive power of the sovereign is according to Hobbes the ultimate dictate of reason. Additionally to the first chapters of De Cive I refer to some passages of Hobbes chief work Leviathan.
28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 40
Chueh-an Yen Normative Gap, Subjugation and Recognition
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In this paper I will argue that normativity in its pure form is a matter of gap. I will elucidate this idea in three aspects. First, I will suggest that the ‘ought’ is the unique creation of human language to deal with the contingencies and the complexity of the world. And the particular merit of the nature of ‘ought’ or the normativity is not what it positively can offer or do, but what it negatively leaves rooms for, because the ‘ought’ opens up some space for reason or action. Second, every normative system must transform the real human being into its own normative construction of person. I call it the subjugation process. Third, the normativity can show its force more deeply through the escape, resistance and refusal, in another word, through struggle for recognition of the agents. This aspect has certain connection with the critical theory.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Milan Tasic On What Should be Before All in the Philosophy of Mathematics
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In the philosophy of mathematics, as in its a meta-domain, we find that the words as: consequentialism, implicativity, operationalism, creativism, fertility, … grasp at most of mathematical essence and that the questions of truthfulness, of common sense, or of possible models for (otherwise abstract) mathematical creations,i.e. of ontological status of mathematical entities etc. - of second order. Truthfulness of (necessary) succession of consequences from causes in the science of nature is violated yet with Hume, so that some traditional footings of logico-mathematical conclusions should equally be falled under suspicion in the last century. We have in mind, say, strict-material implication which led the emergence of relevance logics, or the law of excluded middle that denied intuitionists i.e. paraconsistent logical systems where the contradiction is allowed, as well as the quantum logic which doesn't know, say, the definition of implication etc. Kant's beliefs miscarried hereafter that number (arithmetic) and form (geometry) would bring a (finite) truth on space and time, when they revealed relative and curvated, just as it is contradictory essentially understanding of basic phenomena in the nature: of light as an unity of wave – particle, or that both "exist" and "don't exist" numbers as powers of sets between 0א and c (the independence of continuum hypothesis) etc. Mathematical truths are ''truths of possible worlds'', in which we have only to believe that they will meet once recognizable models in reality. At last, we argue in favour of thesis that a possible representing "in relief" of mathematical entities and relations in the "noetic matter" (Aristotle) would be of a striking heuristic character for this science.
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
AhtiVeikko Pietarinen Why Pragmaticism is Neither Mathematical Structuralism nor Fictionalism
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Despite some surface similarities, Charles Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics, pragmaticism, is incompatible with both mathematical structuralism and fictionalism. Pragmaticism has to do with experimentation and observation concerning the forms of relations in diagrammatic and iconic representations ofmathematical entities. It does not presuppose mathematical foundations although it has these representations as its objects of study. But these objects do have a reality which structuralism and fictionalism deny.
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Woosuk Park Isn’t the Indispensability Argument Necessarily Analogical?
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Both the defenders and the challengers of the indispensability argument seem to ignore the obvious fact that it is meant to be an analogical inference. In this note, I shall draw attention to this fact so as to avoid unnecessary confusions in any future discussion of the indispensability argument. For this purpose, I shall criticize Maddy’s version of the indispensability argument. After having noted that Quinean holism does not have to be one of the necessary premises, I shall suggest alternative formulations of the indispensability argument as an analogical inference. Also, some further reflections on how to evaluate Maddy’s objections to the indispensability argument will be in due order.
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
А. Ж. Жафяров Формирование Вариативного И Творческого Мышления Учащихся На Основе Решения Математических Задач С Параметрами
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Practically all the countries require the highly skilled staff. It is natural, that it is necessary to prepare them in higher educational institutions. In many high schools students were enlisted and are enlisted on the basis of knowledge and skills. It not an optimum variant because the second integrated parameter of an entrant, his mental potential and fundamentality of knowledge, is not taken into account. The specified very important parameter of an entrant is opened in the best way with sums with parameters, that is sums with parameters serve some kind of a litmus piece of paper in definition of quality of the future student. It is the first reason to increase in number of sums with parameters on entrance examinations. The second, not less important reason, is connected with the following:these sums promote better development of the personality of a pupil, its individual propensities and abilities; they help to learn to work in conditions of small and significant uncertainties which are in abundance in our today's life. They develop variative and creative thinking and by those promote development of intelligence and increase of a level of fundamentality of knowledge. Existing textbooks and educational supplies do not contain adequate volume of a material doing of mathematical sums with parameters: there is no system, there are only separate examples, some of them are rather unsuccessful. The author leads ordering of sums with parameters, the technique of doing such sums is developed and corresponding educational supplies on paper and electronic carriers are published.
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
FangWen Yuan Query the Triple Loophole of the Proof of Gödel Incompleteness Theorem
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Kurt Godel’s “Incompleteness Theorem” is generally seen as one of the three main achievements of modern logic in philosophy. However, in this article, three fundamental flaws in the theorem will be exposed about its concept, judgment and reasoning parts by analyzing the setting of the theorem, the process of demonstration and the extension of its conclusions. Thus through the analysis of the essence significance of the theorem, I think the theorem should be classified as "liar paradox" or something like that. Therefore, the theorem is not reliable and then the content of the theorem itself is questionable. At the same time, please note, the root of the problem exposed in Godel's “Incompleteness Theorem” is a typical example o f existing loopholes in traditional logic.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Andrei Rodin Category Theory and Mathematical Structuralism
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Category theory doesn't support Mathematical Structuralism but suggests a new philosophical view on mathematics, which differs both from Structuralism and from traditional Substantialism about mathematical objects. While Structuralism implies thinking of mathematical objects up to isomorphism the new categorical view implies thinking up to general morphism.
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Vitali Tselishchev Intuition and Reality of Signs
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The progress in computer programming leads to the shift in traditional correlation between intuitive and formal components of mathematical knowledge. From epistemological point of view the role of intuition decreases in compare with formal representation of mathematical structures. The relevant explanation is to be found in D. Hilbert’s formalism and corresponding Kantian’s motives in it. The notion of sign belongs to both areas under consideration: on the one hand it is object of intuition in Kantian de re sense, on the other hand, it is part of formal structure. Intuitive mathematical knowledge is expressed by primitive recursive reasoning. The W. Tait’s thesis, namely, that finitism as methodology of mathematics is equivalent to primitive recursive reasoning is discussed in connection with some explications of Kantian notion of intuition. The requirements of finitism are compared with normative role of logic.
36. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Joongol Kim Numbers, Quantities and Hume’s Principle
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This paper argues against neo-Fregeans that Frege was right to conclude that we cannot obtain the concept of number from Hume's Principle. Neo-Fregeans have claimed that Hume's Principle is analytic since it can be viewed as an implicit definition of the concept of cardinal number. But it will be shown that if taken as an implicit definition, Hume's Principle is satisfied not just by the concept of number but also by the concept of discrete quantity, and hence it cannot be viewed as an implicit definition of the concept of cardinal number as distinct from the concept of discrete quantity.
37. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Donald V. Poochigian Mathematical Identity: The Algebraic Unknown Number and Casuistry
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David Hilbert’s distinction between mathematics and metamathematics assumes mathematics is not metamathematics, cardinality of mathematics is less than cardinality of metamathematics, and metamathematics contains mathematics. Only by abandoning the last renders these characteristics consistent. Every set identifiable only in a metaset, following Kurt Gödel, the metaset is convertible into the set by translation of its constituents into constituents of the set, rendering the set indistinguishable from the metaset. Reversing Kurt Gödel, the set is convertible into the metaset by translation of its constituents into constituents of themetaset, rendering the set indistinguishable from the metaset. Set being indistinguishable from metaset, the set of mathematics is unidentifiable as constituent of the set of metamathematics. Only inductively by exclusive resolution of all constituents of the set of all disjunctives of the sets of mathematics and metamathematics is the set of mathematics identifiable. Generated is endless arbitrary qualification of mathematical identity exhibited in continual proofsof its axioms. Understood as clarification, when everything is unique, no concealed contradiction is contained. Constituted is the endless non-repeating digit to the left of the decimal of an algebraic unknown number. Manifest is casuistry, now neither objective nor specious identity, but instead necessary subjective identity distinguishing sets.
38. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
Alfred A. Vichutinsky Of a Real Philosophy and the Natural Sciences Free of the Paranoia
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The bases of tenets of the World came from the East; Pythagoras learnt all there up the 26 years. At a home, the east ideas where took in no; then he bound the mathematics with the elements of matter. This was the best way to a blood feud of the all Humanity. The 17th age gave the bases of mathematics and the Greek atomism; this had led to the paranoia in all sciences. The LCE was brought in 19th age with bases no; really it was the box of Pandora in the form of wrong sciences of the Nature. The wise revenge of Pythagoras was in the form of riddle for the best thinkers in the World in all times; us solved one in the 50th years. A base of the World is of the material space (MS) with praatoms (PAs) Ao; they are of the affinity to matter. A density of the MS is of ~ 5.10‐6 kg/m3 close to the Ears. PA Ao is of quant of matter and antimatter; they are of rotate in the different sides. All matter takes up Ao and to grow. In the giant stars to go the bursts giving Ao, or caloric. The matter of being in the World on base of the key law of conservation of heat (caloric) and matter by loss of energy; it is main. Leibniz offered to the conservation of mv2 in the World. But Newton knew that any move is damped, and it need in filled up. This the author proved by tests over the 300 years just. D.Bernoulli given to the model of gas. I. Kant proved that mv2 is the quantity of heat by stop of the body; it is no the energy! A key leitmotiv of thought is blocked the grasp of facts if ones not leaded to an accepted concept. P. Mayer had the blunder in base of the LCE; a work of gas expansion in Torricelli tube is equal nil strong! This is the gross blunder of a sick paranoiac! The 21 age gave up a new philosophy and a way to endless engine. The super skills from ideal quartz with moving jaws to respond to the all new philosophy and sciences.
39. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Jeffrey Benjamin White Conscience, Consciousness, Sciousness and Science: A Glimpse at Neuroethics and the Future of Moral Philosophy
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No question has demanded so much attention from the philosopher of mind as has this one: What is consciousness? One promising answer begins by noting that consciousness is, itself, a conjugate of more basic stuff. For the ethicist, there is a question that seems at least formally related to the question of consciousness: What is conscience? Could it be that a similar approach carries similar promise? The following short paper first examines consciousness as a conjugate, and then pursues the implications of this analysis for a novel understanding of conscience as the grounds for a science of ethics.
40. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Francesco Belfiore Mind as an Evolving Triadic Entity
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In this paper, through external and internal observation (introspection), it is shown that the human mind (or spirit) can be defined as an evolving, conscious, triadic entity consisting of unitary-multiple components - intellect, sensitiveness, and power - which in turn are made of multiple ideas, sentiments, and actions, respectively. The three mind components are interdependent, each needing the support of the other two for its activity. This interdependence, which is linked to the problem of mind-body relationship, is explained by the observational fact that no physical object can exist if not under particular patterns of forms/structures and associated movements/functions, patterns which are non-physical and represent the “activities” of that object. Conversely, no activity can exist if not associated to a structured and functioning physical object. “Intellect” and “sensitiveness” are regarded as the activities that necessarily arise from the extremely complex structure and physical functions of the brain and other body apparatuses (“power”). Mind can exert outwardly oriented activities, directed to external objects, or inwardly oriented activities, directed to mind itself. The latter activities give the awareness that mind is capable of undergoing evolution, i.e.,development of intellect, sensitiveness and actions. Evolution enables the mind to continuously transcend itself, and could be regarded as the source of “moral values”. Inward mind activity gives rise to moral thoughts, moral feelings and moral acts (counterpart of ideas, sentiments, and actions, produced by the outward mind activity). This conception of mind opens new perspectives in such diverse fields as ontology (the triadic nature might be extensible to all existing objects), ethics (identification of the “good” with the mind-evolution itself), and still others.