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201. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
C. A. H. Bigger, C. P. Bigger The Non-reductive Molecular Basis of Life
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The biochemical study of the simplest living systems does not yield the mechanistic results promised by those who deny that life is an irreducible parameter. We show through the complex mechanisms concerned with the replication, repair, and defense of DNA that organisms are organized to maintain their integrity. Mutations and evolution are not always random effects of environmental causes, for the organism is to some extent able to control chance.
202. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
William T. Blackstone The Science of Ecology and Ethics
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The science of ecology has sensitized us to the intricate causal chains in nature and to the threat to the life system posed by environmental misuse. Responding to the data provided by environmental science, some philosophers have called for fundamentally new ethical principles—a recognition of nonhuman values and an extension of rights not only to animals but to inanimate parts of nature. These attempts to develop an ecological ethic call for radical conceptual revision of the way in which most persons perceive man and the world. This paper explicates those revisions and points to some philosophical difficulties which confront them.
203. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Dieter Birnbacher The Scientific Basis of Utilitarian Ethics
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Among systems of normative ethics, Utilitarianism has been the one most persistently claimed to stand on a scientific basis. The paper restates this claim by showing that although Mill’s so-called "proof"of Utilitarianism is indefensible even in terms of non-demonstrative plausibility, an alternative argument can be constructed yielding the same conclusion by making use of a "minimum agreement principle". It is argued, further, that the concept of happiness central to Utilitarianism is empirically determinate and is capable of scientific investigation by various psychological and sociological approaches.
204. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Gernot Böhme Quantification as a Process of Object-formation
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The general Kantian claim that certain traits of the object of knowledge may be known a priori is reduced here to the scientific object. Scientific experience proceeds through certain operations, by which the life-world phenomena are transformed into scientific objects. These operations impose upon scientific objects certain formal structures. The latter cannot be empirical because data production is possible only on the basis of them. On the other side, they determine how and to what degree mathematics are applicable to the data.
205. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Ervin Bóna Einige Fragen der interdisziplinaren Verbindungen
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Der erste Teil des Vortrages ist don Ertwurf einer möglichen Typologie der interdiszipinären Verbindungen gewidmet, dann folgt eine einigermaßen ausführlichere Darlegung. Die Konkretislerung beschränkt sich auf den Kreis der biologischen Wissenschaften, die sich ln unserer Zeit sehr dynamisch entwickeln. Die Absicht des Vortrages ist die (skizzenhefte) Darlegung der Tatsache, daß die Forsehungsintegrationen betreffs ihrer Genese, Struktur und Funktion mannigfach sind und ihre differenzierte Handhabung und dialektische Deutung die Voraussetzung der weiteren Forschung bilden.
206. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Vladimír Brožic Norm und gesellschaftliche Praxis
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Die Verbindlichkeit einer Norm hängt ab: Von der Fähigkeit des Subjekts sich seiner sebst und seiner Lage bewusst zu werden, vom Niveau seiner Bestrebungen, von der Fähigkeit des Subjekts die eigene Vorhaben zu verwirklichen, von den objektiven Möglichkeiten die gesteckten Ziele zu erreichen. Dies bedeutete, dass der Streit zwischen wissenschaftlicher und unwissenschaftlicher Norm in letzter Instanz ein praktischer Streitfall ist, er kann nicht auf dem Felde der reinen Theorie, mit theoretischen Mitteln ausgefochten werden.
207. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Norman E. Bowie The Place of Values in the World of Science
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I use the metaphor of an executive decision maker to help explain the relation of facts and values. I try to show how values both depend on facts and go beyond them. I also try to show how attempts to justify value judgments must cite the facts and at the same time meet special criteria appropriate for value judgments.
208. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Joseph Borgoss La révolution scientifico-technique et ses interpretations extrêmes
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En conséquence de cette révolution surgit le "thiers monde": le monde de la technique qui s'est glissé entre le monde de la nature et l'homme, fin effet la division dychotomique de la réalité en monde de la nature et en monde de l'homme et ce qui en résulte division dychotomique des sciences en Naturwissenschaften et Geistenwissensehaften, a été remplacée par une division trychotomique: le monde de la nature, de la technique, de la société. Au moment où ce "thiers monde" a révélé son ambivalent caractère-negatif et positif, ont apaaru ses deux extrêmes interprétations: faustique /catastrophique/ et ludique /absolument optimiste/.
209. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Luis A. Camacho Mastering Science and Technology as a Life-or-Death Problem for the Third World: Some Philosophical Considerations
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Development has become the main obsession for Third World countries. It is usually associated with the mastery of scientific and technological processes. Since strictly speaking there is no transfer of teohnology, poor countries cannot solve their problens by simply profiting from a technology freely flowing from advanced nations. Other alternatives must be considered. At the same time, the notion of development itself must be criticised and a developed notion of development must be achieved and applied. Such an achievement could be the contribution of the developing countries to the world as a whole.
210. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Rüdiger Bubner Norm und Geschichte
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Norms are to be distinguished from imperatives in the kantian sense. They are based upon contingent factors with regard to their genesis, their content and their practical execution. Those factors representing the constitutive historicity of norms function as a necessary limitation for the claim to rationality of the norms themselves. The philosophical tradition of natural law and utopian constructions up to the present tends to neglect the historical dimension of norms - a dimension that can be clarified only through a hermeneutical theory of history.
211. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
L.P. Bujewa Die wissenschaftliche und soziale Lenkung der Entwicklung des Menschen
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Die Meisterung des wissenschaftlich-technischen Fortschritts setzt eine Koordinierung seines Inhaltes, seiner Ausrichtung und Tempern mit dem sozialen Fortschritt und der Menschlichen Entwicklung voraus. Das Vorhandensein einer inneren Verbindung zwischen der wissenschaftlichen und sozialen Lenkung dieser Prozesse ist Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Lösung dieser globalen Aufgabe. Dem Menschen bei der Beherrschung und Meisterung der Kräfte der eigenen Natur helfend trägt die Philosophie zusammen mit den konkreten Wissenschaften zur Realisierun der humanistlachen Aufgabe der Erkenntnis und Umgestaltung der welt
212. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Mario Bunge, Rodolfo Llinás The Mind-Body Problem in the Light of Neuroscience
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This paper addresses the problem of which, of the two rival doctrines of the mind, psychoneural dualism and monism, coheres best with both the ontological framework of science and with results in neuroscience. It is concluded that, whereas dualism is not compatible with either, a certain version of monism—called emergentist materialism—is. It is also argued that, while the former is sterile or worse, the latter fosters scientific- research into the mind-body problem by encouraging the integration of psychology with the other life sciences.
213. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Mary Carman Rose The Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Nature Reconsidered
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Nature cannot be reduced to a mathematical entity because, while the quantitative may be fundamental to nature, it always has qualitative concomitants. These include the sensory qualities of color, sound, fragrance, taste, and touch. These include also subjective feelings and states of consciousness of men and animals. The method of science requires commitment to the encompassing of these qualitative aspects of nature in science. Faithfulness to this commitment which bring increased insight into the method of sciences will increase the power of scientific inquiry; and will bring new knowledge of the usefulness of all aspects of the investigator to his scientific work.
214. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Eurayalo Cannabrava Illative Space and Theory of Knowledge
215. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Mary Carman Rose Science and Metaphysics: the Classical View
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Does 'La philosophie a ses raisons que les sciences ne connaissent pas?' Yes. For metaphysics, which both in its acceptance and dejection, is fundamental to all philosophical thought, uses methods and has goals different from those of science, which I explore in my paper. Yet, the time has come to reintroduce and bring-up-to-date what it is useful to call the classical view of the inter-relatedness between metaphysics (and hence between philosophy) and science. This view calls for a cooperation between the two, with neither rejecting or seeking to dominate or accepting the dominance of the other.
216. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Stanley R. Carpenter The Problematic Character of Technology Assessment
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The international technology assessment movement represents a noteworthy attempt at understanding and mastery of technological progress by modem industrial society. This paper explains why Technology Assessment (TA) has enjoyed marginal success. TA has patterned its methodology after the technologies it must evaluate. More fundamentally it has sought philosophical support from the same positivistic assumptions on which science based technology is grounded. Because positivism perpetuates the error that scientific technology is intelligible in terms independent of the political and economic context, TA itself is deprived of substantive criteria which could form the basis of a critique of technology.
217. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Peter Caws The Delusion of Meaning
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It is argued that the search for meaning in life or in the universe as a whole is misguided, and rests on a confusion between significance and the signiferous systems that make it possible. The expectation that such global meanings are attainable and the belief that they are necessary exert, it is claimed, a damaging effect on the appreciation of more limited episodes of meaningful activity. Philosophy should therefore expose them as delusions, at,the same time pursuing the analysis of meaning in the more limited contexts to which this view necessarily restricts it.
218. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
David E. Cooper The Law of Non-contradiction
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Several philosophers have argued, against the hypothesis of alternative logical mentalities, that it is not conceivable that there should be peoples who reject the law of non-contradictlon. In reply, I argue first that these philosophers are lending an unwarranted pre-eminence to this law (perhaps because of a mistake they make about entailment), and second that their case is made to look stronger than it is by confusing different senses in which a logical law might be 'rejected'. Finally, I consider some remarks of Wittgenstein which suggest that 'acceptance' of contradictions might not be unintelligible.
219. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
L. B. Cebik The Unspoken Influence of Concepts: Thoughts Toward an Understanding of the Consequences of Ideas on Perceptions and Consciousness
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It is argued that ideas and theories often evolve into preconceptions of our perceptions. Such evolution is implicit in Heidegger's notion of truths of alethia. The description of this process holds implications for the traditional givenness of humans for themselves in terms of the changabllity of absolute presuppositions. Among the implications are 1. the insufficiency of the historical mode for explaining changes in human self-perception; 2. the inadequacy of radical subjectivism and environmentalism; 3. a radical contingency and complexity to the course of human conceptualization; and 4. the awareness that human efforts can influence alterations in preconceptions. The influence of modern brain theory is subject to these conditions.
220. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Lawrence Crocker The Existence of Something
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It is sometimes thought that the existence of something rather than nothing is, in some respect, surprising or improbable and that it requires, for this reason, a special explanation, different in kind from ordinary or scientific explanations. In this paper, I argue that there is not any reasonable sort of probability under which the existence of something rather than nothing is improbable. I then show that, even if it were improbable, it would not be the sort of improbability which requires a special explanation.