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41. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Evgeny Krotkov Диагностика Как Вид Эпистемической Практики
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Diagnostics is becoming one of the most important kinds of epistemic practice: accurate and timely diagnosis is necessary not only for ill people, but for economic, social and political systems and institutions, culture, science, technology, and ecosystems. The analysis of researches into diversity of diagnostics used in various branches enabled the author to develop the outline of the philosophical theory of diagnostics, to identify its subject matter and problems, to name the categories and principles of the epistemological and methodological analysis of diagnostics activities, and to characterize its essential components. Diagnostics is defined as the process of developing cognitive perception of the object being investigated (sought for) and identifying it with existing knowledge of the object (orobjects of the same type). Diagnostics has the following constituents: a) determining something known and constant in the unknown and inconstant; b) identifying the single and occurent with the “ready-made” classification schemes and explanatory patterns, i.e. identifying it with the common and consistent; associating new facts with the known, common and consistent by applying well-tried methods, algorithms and technologies. The author identifies two levels of diagnostics: factual (empirical) and discursive. Discourse is defined as a finite course of reasoning based on a common concept. Reasoning is defined as the search for an answer to a cognitively significant question through drawing a conclusion (making a deduction). The author also analyses the role of argumentative, interpretative (explanatory), qualifying and predictive reasoning in the diagnostic thinking. The specific character of the diagnostic search is determined by an all-important role played in its process by a priori normative (paradigmatic) knowledge, as well as by its orientation to the cognition of the single and individual. The article alsotouches upon the issue of relationship between diagnostics and research investigation. This enables the author to specify the nature of scientific work and identify the correlation of existing knowledge and innovations.
42. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Niginahon Shermuhamedova Научный поиск как творческий процесс
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Complexity of studying of scientific creativity, in particular, scientific search consists that is the multiplane phenomenon comprising the whole complex of different changes, such as social, psychological, subject, information, logic, methodological philosophical and other aspects. And only consideration of all these aspects in their unity and interaction opens an opportunity of construction of the complete theory of scientific creativity (scientific search), explanations of laws and mechanisms of reception of new scientific results, fulfillment of opening. For this reason research of last time are guided by the complex analysis of creative activity, on use of methods and means of various disciplines more and more. In scientific search the main thing – to direct efforts to the decision of the putquestions, to concentrate on the studied phenomena for a long time. Even then, when scientific search leads to new results, the researcher far not always gives the exhaustive formulations, allowing considering the given question solved. It is not always capable to formulate and those conclusions which the analyzed material allows it to make. The researcher during search should reconsider constantly former guesses, ideas and hypotheses, differently its search will not lead to success. In scientific search of success or failure always depend on set of factors. These factors can change both a course and a direction of the search. Alongside with it scientific search is impossible without persevering aspiration, without creative boldness of the researcher. Search is fruitful and effective only when the researcher arms with progressive ideas of time, possesses independence and impartiality of thinking, a wide general outlook and feeling new when search reflects the certain expectations of a society.
43. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Alexander Krushanov Ситуации предстандарта в историческом становлении естественных наук
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Historical becoming and evolution of scientific knowledge are connected with the passing through very specific and important stages – stages of terminological chaos and its eliminating (like it was in the times of K. Linnaeus in botany and A. Lavoisier in chemistry). This specific and important experience is not represented in the famous models of cognitive dynamics (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Styopin etc.). Situations of such a kind are fixed in the report as “prestandard situations”. It means: 1. it’s time when some of the terms or symbols express simultaneously different meanings 2. there are some parallel terms or symbols with essentially the same meaning 3. scientific community (or some scholar) has to leave usual operating with the scientific knowledge and to work out system of terminological or symbolic priorities (standards for the field). This model includes also description of main stages of the pre-standard situation maturing.
44. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 54
Долженко Владимир Время ‐ Мера Длины Космического Пути Земных Событий
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PROCESS this ordered movement of energy from one object to other object, changing their physical parameters. EVENT is the information on process. LIFE is the information on processes. The LIFE is process. The INFORMATION is a part of energy reflected or radiated by object written down in memory of the person, a material, space.
45. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
T. V. Bernyukevich Компаративные методы и концепция типологического сходства западной и восточной философии в исследованиях буддизма в России в к. XIX – XX вв.
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The article is devoted to Russia research Buddhism at the end of ninetieths and first half twentieths centuries in the comparativism development context in our country. It is marked in it that Russian comparative philosophy was closely connected with the oriental studies in our country. The Buddhism comparative research of that time was aimed at developing of theoretical and methodological foundation of comparative research, overcoming of European centralization and the problems of finding and understanding of common senses in different cultures, finding the ways of Buddhism language «translation» into the European civilization language, determining of the Eastern Philosophy role and place in the world historical and philosophical process and proper philosophical systemand concepts substantiation. Typological similarity concept of the Eastern and Western philosophy problems proved to be theoretical and methodological foundation of comparative research in Russia. The essence of this concept is concentrated at the assurance of the system range of the Indian philosophy being the same one as the Greek-European philosophy possessing the same problems, answers and thinking laws, may be not always in the same combination andquestions but it surely being the everlasting philosophical problems of humanity. This problem was investigated by such the East research scientists as I.B. Minaev, F.I. Scherbatsky. S.F. Oldenburg, O.O. Rosenberg and philosophers I.I. Lapshin and B.D. Dandaron.
46. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Lubov Yakovleva Spanish and Russian Philosophical Traditions: Common and Special Features
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The paper handles a possibility to use the term “national philosophical tradition” in comparative philosophy as a branch of knowledge, which provides for methodological tools in an intercultural dialogue. It defines the concept of “national philosophical tradition”, principles and ways of its research. The basis of studies is a comparison between the Russian and Spanish philosophical cultures. Inherent common features of both traditions are an epistemological status of philosophy in culture, prevalence of an intuitive insight in the essence of the matter, a tendency to a synthesis between life and reason, confirmation of a fundamental cognation of literature and philosophy. An understanding of a boundary character of their culture has given rise to a messianic predestination of both nations and caused a keen interest in creation of an original national philosophy. So much in common have these two extremes of the European civilization, their main difference lies in the personalism of the Spanish philosophy and the cosmologism of the Russian one. This distinction can to a great extent be explainedby a different type of a religious background and mentality. It is these differences in national philosophical traditions that feed the world philosophy. It is on the basis of these national philosophical traditions that achievements of other philosophical cultures are introduced and assimilated in a new context. That is the reason why this concept may serve as a basis of comparison between different philosophical system.
47. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Салахаддин Халилов Сравнительный анализ восточной и западной концепций любви
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Both descending love of western erotic novels and eastern poetry that ascends love to heavens are considered non-acceptable. Neither eastern maximalism and mysticism, nor western extreme rationalism and pragmatism are approved. Studying the “rational” appearance standing between these two extremes is preferred. Individual-human, real love stands somewhere between the Earth and sky, erotic and divine love. Differing from the understanding of love as a pure idea (Plato, Pushkin), and as a pure psychophysiological phenomenon (“Kama Sutra”, Sigmund Freud), synthetic unity of these two factors that leads to more realistic description of love is preferred in this article.
48. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Vladimir Doljenko Dialectics Process - Harmony of Life
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- Vibrations of light, a sound, a smell, taste, heat and volume transfer energy information (sense) of physical object to consciousness of the person. - Change of physical parameters of object is perceived by the person in time as event. - Event is the information on current of "invisible" process of transfer of energy between cooperating objects. - Process this ordered movement of energy from one object to other object, changing their physical parameters. - Phases of a condition of processes on the Earth describe laws of dialectics. - The-certain alternation of phases of development of process shows the order of movement of energy incooperating objects (paper pic. N3) - Laws of dialectics it is laws of harmony of succession of events. - Harmony of development of process (movement of energy) is financially(material) perceived by the person as development of event. - A sign on great limit (taiczi) philosophy Dao are graphic expression of laws of dialectics. - Energy of the Sun gives rise to all processes on the Earth. - The INFORMATION is a part of energy reflected or rediated by object written down in memory of the person, a material, space.
49. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Валерий Дмитриевич Диденко Выражение невыразимого как коррелят онтологических sи гносеологических оснований духовного
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The paper demonstrates that art, as a component of the common foundations of the spiritual, exerts an expressive function in culture. This is attained by “supplementing” the scientific picture of the world that is shaped by theoretical (reliable) knowledge, to achieve the necessary completeness and integrity required by the boundlessaspirations of the human spirit, in which the unknown appears as strange, wonderful, fantastic, nevertheless, meaningful principle of individual and socal life.
50. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Д.ф.н. Т. В. Кузнецова Эстетические формы красоты, моды и гламура
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Человеческую историю можно рассматривать с различных точек зрения, автор говорит: и как прогресс в духовном саморазвитии, и как прогресс в свободе реализации – это прогресс продуктивных сил. Также можно его рассматривать как продолжающееся развитие человеческого понимания красоты. В статье показано, как идея красоты развивается с античных времен до настоящего времени. Какая связь существует между пониманием красоты и гламуром. Этот концепт в первую очередь относится к моде на одежду и косметику, а в широком смысле – стилю жизни, развлечениям, выбору предметов потребления.
51. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Попова Елена Васильевна В эстетике не “все позволено“
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В современной культуре утрачен эстетический эталон, а искусство лишается присущего ей аристократизма. Одна из причин снижения уровня современной культуры – в ложном понимании свободы. Свобода как универсальная ценность в современном мире превращается в свою противоположность, когда человек решает: все позволено. Искусство – это главный канал культуры, которая всегда требует ограничений. В Нобелевской речи И.А.Бродского есть важная мысль: «В этике не “все позволено“ именно потому, что в эстетике не “все позволено“». Сегодня в эстетике преобладают эпатажные формы, замешанные на политических интересах. «Альтернативное искусство» манифестирует себя под масками либерализма, толерантности и демократизма, которые не безупречны. Культура должна пониматься как экологическая среда, в которой действуют определенные запреты и ограничения. Классическое сознание знало идеальные нормы, которые и определяли высокий этический и эстетический уровень гуманитарной культуры. Классическая литература и классическая философия – это та верховная инстанция, которая может сказать: это добро, а это зло. Классическое сознание предупреждало: «Дух зла соблазняет человека» (Гете).
52. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Сиднева Татьяна Борисовна Музыка в эпоху эстетизации
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A characteristic feature of the modern era is the penetration of the aesthetic in all spheres of cultural space. At the same time throughout the process unfolds dissolution of art in everyday life, its ‘desecration’ (Benjamin) and ‘dizaynizatsiya’ (Baudrillard). In these circumstances, the music as “Lullaby name of all art” (Goethe), is particularly sensitive to the counter trend of modern era. On the one hand, the all-pervading power of music has led to unprecedented sound environment era - in strength, ambiguity, and information richness of the audio stream. Such large volumes of musical memory is not known in history. On the other hand, the music loses its limits: lofty and low, author`s and borrowed, art and non-art, musical and non-musical. It no longer refers primarily to the hearing, but reveals the dependence on visual perception tuned to the shaped concrete, material nature, tangibility. So, it may be treated as a ‘non-musical’ era. However, penetrating the whole vertical culture and joining into the situation of “mixing genres” (Baudrillard), music is able to perform the function of a universal language, combining multidirectional processes of era with a mood of sensitivity to the processes of life.
53. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Feruza Bozarova Эстетическая Проблематика Иммануила Канта
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The most essential contribution to development of a philosophi­cal aesthetics, according to many experts, the largest representative of German classical philosophy Immanuel Kant has brought. In the Kant aesthetic views the Second, so-called critical, period of his creativity is most interesting, when he has created the most considerable works: “Criticism of pure reason” (1781), “Criticism of practical reason” (1788) and “Criticism of ability of judgment” (1790). Unlike the predecessors-educators demonstrating a subject of aesthetics in objective reality, looking for the objective bases of beauty, Kant after Burke, and relying on development of psychological school of Wolf, didn’t think of the sphere aesthetic without the subject and his perception of object. Main for him category of esthetics are “expedient”, “taste”, “free game”, “beauty”, “sublime” the essence of the characteristic of aesthetic contemplation which is accompanied by special pleasure, or disinterested creative activity. Ability of Kant to understand clearly and present an originality of the art sphere explains attractiveness and authoritativeness of his aesthetics.
54. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Суздальцева Светлана Николаевна Эстетические проблемы интерпретации современной живописи
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настоящая публикация рассматривает проблемы интерпретации современной живописи в ракурсе актуального искусства. Согласно семиотической традиции, абстрактное живописное произведение рассматривается как текст. Определяется эстетический способ существования живописного произведения как объекта эстетического опыта. На примере художественных практик модернизма и постмодернизма выявляются основные тенденции установки границ интерпретаций. В рамках рассматриваемого вопроса акцентируется позиция американской теории искусств (Р.Краус), ее концепция индексального знака. Намечаются перспективы возможных путей интерпретации современной живописи.
55. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Galina Kolomiets The Axiological Status of Music
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The paper is based on the original study of Galina Kolomiets named «The conception of music value as a substance and as the way of value interaction between the person and the world» which is presented in the monograph “The music value: philosophical aspect”. The phenomenon of music is considered as the indissoluble unity of its two hypostases – the essence of music (musical substance) and musical skill, which belongs to the person and the world. The basicidea of the author is to show, how the extra-historical essence of music (world harmony, universal rhythm) is connected with the man and the world and what are “the cohesion mechanisms” of musical substance as a form of art. According to the study such mechanisms are: the music value and value in the music, inverted, from one side, to the highest sense, from another - to the senses of human life.
56. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Шулындина Анастасия В.С. Соловьев и его школа о Сиcтеме Единой Сферы Знания
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One of the most powerful tendencies of the World scientific thought development of XIX – the first half of XX century was analysing all sorts of knowledge, accumulated by mankind in the form of universal synthetic system combining science, religion and philosophy into the Universal Sphere of Knowledge that gives the humanity the possibility to achieve a new deeper level of understanding the reality. By the founder of the Classical Russian Systematic School of Philosophy (according to me – A.Sh.) V.S. Soloviev - for the first time in history - the Idea of the Universal Sphere of Knowledge which is depicted by the Greek term ΘεωΣοφιαwas descriptively defined. The followers of V.S. Soloviev’s school in the middle of XIX – the beginning of XX century worked out many aspects of the Concept of Ontological Synthesis of dispersed Spheres of knowledge, among which the Philosophy is an important and homogeneous part of synthesis of Science and Theology. This Spheres of Knowledge look different and it was aggravated in the course of historically developed separation of their methods, spheres ofexperience and types of thinking. Nevertheless to find the new ways to reach the new level of knowledge for the mankind they must be concentrated on the investigation of the Absolute Elements of the World : Truly-Existing [Λογος] (suprasystematic Element) in its real manifestation. The main (or the basic) method of knowledge is the inner experience of mystic origin. The findings of Russian Philosophers are confirmed by the studies of scientific methods which made it possible to achieve great staggering discoveries and inventions which will for a long time remain mysterious for the majority of human beings.
57. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Наталья Мартишина Метафизика Как Учение Об Истинном Бытии
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Classic of Russian philosophy Alexandr I. Vvedensky proposed a definition of metaphysics as a study of true reality contrary to apparent one. This definition seems to be useful in contemporary issues. It's an apt definition because it describes an ancient metaphysics as good as classical tradition and concerns allbranches of the philosophical knowledge. A number of philosophical subjects are connected with the difference of true and apparent reality as their foundation. For instance, Philosophical Anthropology differentiates between real and formal personal existence. Epistemology discusses a problem of a criterion of real existence and notes that any language does not contain such internal criterion. The Philosophy of science analyses a conventional reality created by people, and so does the Philosophy of art. Social and Political Philosophy due to understand a nature of special phenomena which have no substance but are real and objective. Finally, contemporary Philosophy of technology concentrates on the virtual reality as a special kind of existence. So, the problem of the distinction between true and apparent reality manifests itself in all philosophical disciplines, and this fact determines a major meaning of the metaphysics in the philosophy.
58. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Shelud’ko Grigoriy Vladimirovich Metaphysics of Classical and Nonclassical Kinds of Social Realities
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The metaphysics of a social reality assumes definition ontology various plans of its realization as sorts of attitude to kinds. The last ones represent phenomena of a social reality - as classical and nonclassical. The economy, morals, religion, the right concern to classical kinds of a social reality. Attributes of a sociality of the given kinds: activity, attitudes, forms of social consciousness. A nonclassical kinds given attributes yet "do not possess" to the full. Their metaphysics is defined through parity with classical kinds of society. The structure of a social reality is mobile that is why "updating" of the list of classical kinds of a social reality is not soproblematic that is why the urgency of an explication ontology and metaphysics of a sort of a reality social and numerous kinds is undoubtedly rather productive and duly.
59. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
С.А. Нижников Преобразование метафизики в творчестве И. Канта и возможность веры
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The subject of author’s reflection is transformation of metaphysics in creativity of I. Kant and an opportunity of faith on the basis of new existential ontology. It begins from opportunity developing of new metaphysics in the works of Kant and then – Heidegger. There is a problem in understanding of metaphysics in Kant’s art. From author’s point of view Kant tried to create a new type of ontology as a real metaphysics that doesn’t destroy the faith if one understands it non-metaphysically. Even more – Kant’s and Heidegger’s new ontology can produce and have already produced a new type of faith understanding. This transcendental and aprioristic faith is the inner essence of different faiths, which objected in religions. Nowadays this faith must be opened and rethought,because it can helps to solve global spiritual problems of mankind. Only real (ontological) and humanistic knowledge can spiritually unite persons and peoples.
60. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
С. Л. Катречко Как возможна метафизика XXI века?
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The European metaphysics begins with opening by Parmenid a metaphysical reality of the Uniform in its difference from a physical reality of the Much. This sets its first border and defines the ontological modus of the metaphysics, developed in the Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Thinkers of New time occupy a reflectiveposition in the relation of antiquity’s asking “WHAT is the metaphysics?”. They interest no longer the fact of the presence of the metaphysics, but the bases of this fact — transcendental conditions of its possibility (resp. a question “How is metaphysics possible?”). If the Antiquity (Parmenid) considers metaphysics as the reality of an empirical subject, then Kant raises the question about the possibility of metaphysics as the activities of a transcendental subject. There is the second boundary of metaphysics, which transforms in its epistemological modus. The transcendental method becomes the criterion of the metaphysics: it makes possible to critic the metaphysics and to limit its claims. The new metaphysics (XXI c.) occupies the reflexive position to the epistemological modus of metaphysics. It attempts to reveal its basic “figure of silence”, i.e. the transcendental conditions of the transcendental subject. The bases of the transcendental subject are the natural capability of human reason to fall outside the boundaries of experience (metaphysica naturalis; Kant) and the language. The metaphysica naturalis can be correlated with Husserl’s intentionality, but its prototype is the Leibnitz’s monad. The question “How is homo metaphysics possible?” is determining for the anthropological modus of metaphysics of XXI century.