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41. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Michael Barnett, Michael Cummings, Paul Vaaler The Social Dividends of Diaspora: Migrants, Remittances, and Changes in Home-Country Rule of Law
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How do societies improve over time? This paper demonstrates one means through which the independent actions of individuals can produce country-level social change. We explain how institutional governance norms, specifically those surrounding rule of law, are transmitted to developing countries through migrants and their remittances. We develop and test an empirical model using a panel dataset of 49 developing countries from 2001-2010. Results suggest that migrants and their remittances matter, but their impact depends on where both reside abroad. Developing countries that suffer a “brain drain” may in some cases be compensated with a social gain.
42. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Michael Crooke, Mark Mallinger Personal Responsibility for Improving Society: The Role of Graduate Business Education
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This paper develops the case for establishing curriculum in business school that includes systems-based strategic decision-making. Pepperdine University’s certificate in Social, Environmental and Ethical Responsibility at their Graziadio School of Business is an example of a program that espouses values-based leadership, using the SEER lens as a framework that includes social and environmental values in the process of crafting a sustainable competitive advantage.
43. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Judith A. White, Don McCormick Leadership for an Emerging Democracy in Burma: A Model of Moral Courage
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This qualitative study examines the moral courage of leaders working for democracy and human rights in Burma. As Burma transitions to democracy moralcourage will be essential for leaders of civil society organizations as they face corruption, cronyism, and resistance to change. From interview data with nineteen leaders in Burma and Thailand, and a review of the literature we developed a conceptual model of moral courage that suggests that the relationship between moral motivation and the demonstration of moral courage was mediated by political, social, and individual level factors including the activists’ knowledge and experiences. In addition to applications for leadership in civil society organizations in emerging democracies, results suggest individuals in private, public, or non-governmental organizations, when confronted with coercion, corruption, exploitation, or denial of due process can act with moral courage by engaging their moral principles, commitment, compassion, and sense of urgency while recognizing risks and potential hardship.
44. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Duane Windsor Toward a General Theory of Responsibility and Irresponsibility
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This paper seeks to make a contribution toward a general theory of responsibility and irresponsibility. Such a theory, or framework or model, addresses therelationship between responsibility and irresponsibility. The motive for the effort is that the literature on business ethics, corporate citizenship, and corporate social responsibility combines negative prohibitions with positive requirements and at both individual and organizational levels of action. A prohibition takes the form “do not” expressed in laws and ethics. A requirement takes the form “should” or “ought” expressed in theories of responsibility and stakeholder engagement. Armstrong (1977) points out that actually preventing harm may be socially much more valuable than promoting contribution.
45. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Daniel W. Greening, James Wall, Sara R.S.T.A. Elias Developing Theory in Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Entrepreneurship: An International Investigation of the PET Organization
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This paper was originally a discussion proposal but data has been collected since June and we would like to share some results in this proceedings article. Our goal is to link the CSR literature with the social entrepreneurship literature by studying the growth of an international organization and discuss our methodologies and findings to date.
46. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Anne Barraquier A Cultural Analysis of Sustainability and Human Organizations
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What can we learn from pre-industrial societies and organizations to achieve a sustainable development? As the pressure on organizations for a more sustainable world is increasing, some suggest that pre-industrial societies have lessons to teach. Organizations studies have borrowed very little from anthropology studies and have therefore not benefited from the cultural analysis they provide. This paper digs into this untapped reservoir of knowledge, and suggests a twofold discussion. The first part presents counterintuitive results that dismiss common assumptions: indigenous organizations are not more conservationist than modern organizations, their dependence upon nature has translated into cultural practices which were hastily interpreted as forms of respect, their interest for the natural environment being rather guided by survival and cultural autonomy. Whereas tribal groups are dependent upon natural resources and cycles, modern societies and organizations have used technology to exploit the natural world. Yet, modern societies and organizations can benefit from knowledge withheld by indigenous cultural groups. I conclude on the idea that a sustainable model is yet to be found, and that a new paradigm of individual and group behavior has to emerge to confront environmental degradation and scarcity of natural resources.
47. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Maria Goranova, Lori Verstegen Ryan Shareholder Activism: A Multidisciplinary View
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Shareholder activism has become a dynamic institutional force, and its associated, rapidly increasing body of scholarly literature affects numerous disciplineswithin the organizational science academy. Despite growing shareholder empowerment, the impact of shareholder activism on corporate outcomes remains equivocal. The heterogeneity of factors in shareholder activism, such as environmental, firm, proponent, and issue characteristics; the variety of activism methods and processes; and varying outcomes provides a plethora of theoretical and methodological challenges for activism researchers. Furthermore, the separation of prior research on financial and social activism has left unanswered questions critical for both the scholarly discourse on shareholder activism and the normative debate on shareholder empowerment. Our multidisciplinary review integrates both the financial and social activism streams and explores shareholder activism controversies, seeking to provide an impetus for more cohesive conceptual and empirical work in the field.
48. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
William P. Smith Employee Privacy Rights and New Communication Technologies
49. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Hyuk Kim Social Entrepreneurship in the Global Perspective: Internationalization of Social Entrepreneurship and Global Sustainable Development
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First, this research paper aims to provide a clearer definition of social entrepreneurship, identifying boundaries and providing examples of social entrepreneurship. Second, this research paper examines more fully the rationale for the emergence of new global social ventures, particularly in terms of the forces shaping the globalization of social entrepreneurship. Finally, this research paper aims to introduce a new social entrepreneurship model for global sustainable development, analyzing the relationship between social entrepreneurship and global sustainable development. This new social entrepreneurship model is presented through the introduction of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).
50. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Caddie Putnam Rankin, Harry Van Buren, Orcid-ID Michelle Westermann-Behaylo Corporate Compassion in Disaster Relief: Lessons from 2005 and 2010
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When natural disasters strike, a network of individuals, aid agencies, and corporations join together in a humanitarian effort to provide relief and recovery to those in need. Corporations, in particular, have played an increasing role in disaster assistance by providing financial support, goods, services, and logistic coordination (Muller and Whiteman 2009). Previous research has addressed corporate responses to disaster by investigating the factors that impact the likelihood of giving. Instead of focusing on the likelihood of corporate action, or inaction, we address how different types of compassion are employed by corporations when they engage in disaster relief. We investigate how the use of language signals either strategic or altruistic compassion.
51. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Julio Sesma, Bryan W. Husted, Jerry Banks Measuring Corporate Social Performance: Using Social Media to Assess Stakeholder Satisfaction
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Corporate social performance (CSP) has been studied extensively by business and society scholars, yet most approaches to its measurement continue to be ambiguous, controversial and difficult to use (Wood, 2010). In this paper, we propose measuring CSP via the construct of stakeholder satisfaction through social media like Facebook and Twitter. We argue that the satisfaction of stakeholder expectations can be explained with organizational justice theory particularly in the exercise of voice by stakeholders when they perceive unjust behavior on the part of the firm. We test our idea using event study methodology with a sample of 5,440 observations from ten U.S. companies: We found some evidence for the sensitivity of social media to social events of interest to Twitter users.
52. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Mercy Berman, Jeanne M. Logsdon Business Participation in Regulatory Reform: Responses to Obama’s Executive Order 13563
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President Barack Obama ordered federal regulatory agencies to engage in a retrospective regulatory review process in early 2011. This paper reports the initial results of an analysis of participation in the notice and comment process by business and public interest groups. The focus of the analysis is on comments given to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Some attention is given to the EPA’s identification of regulations to be reviewed, as a result of this process.
53. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Jonathan Bundy, Michael D. Pfarrer The Persistence of Defensive Firm Response Strategies to Crises: A Discussion of Explanations and Implications
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This discussion paper explores the explanations and implications of defensive response strategies used to manage organizational crises. Current research is highlighted and future research directions are proposed. Key areas for future research include investigating long-term repercussions of defensive strategies, examining multistakeholder perspectives, and exploring ethical questions related to being defensive.
54. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
John M. Holcomb Corruption and Campaign Finance Law
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This paper explains and criticizes the definition of corruption used by the U.S. Supreme Court in its campaign finance decisions and proposes components of a new definition to be applied by the Court. The paper also offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of the Citizens United v. FEC decision of 2010, and suggests that much of the analysis to date has been inaccurate or superficial. Further, given the Court’s expansive analysis and application of the First Amendment to corporate political activities in its latest decisions, the paper also suggests alternative checks on corporate political power related to shareholder activism and corporate governance.
55. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Julie Fitzmaurice, Mark Cordano, Timothy E. Martinson, Alice V. Wise Greens in the Vines: The Role of Consumers’ Environmental Concerns Regarding Inclination to Make Wine Purchases
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A survey was conducted in a naturalistic setting, within wine tasting rooms, to explore how consumers' sustainability attitudes and subjective norms influence their decision to purchase wines from wineries which have adopted an environmental management program. The results indicate that both are significant predictors of intentions and explain over half of the variation in intentions to purchase. In addition, identifying environmental organization members is a useful approach in identifying a segment of consumers having stronger levels of these antecedents and, therefore, more likely to purchase from wineries using sustainable grape growing practices (than non-members) Consumers who are environmental organization members are more likely to be interested in organic products, as well. Information on sustainable grape growing practices is relevant and influential for a specific segment of consumers, those consumers more passionate about the environment, and increases their intentions to purchase from wineries who have adopted these practices.
56. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Alice Anberrée What Personal Responsibilities Facilitate the Construction of a Cultural Democracy? Involvement of the Public in the Construction of a Cultural Democracy: Improvements and Constraints
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In France a difference has been established between cultural popularization and cultural democracy. The former is aimed at spreading works of art in as large a way as possible; the latter emphasizes the participation of the public. From there, we argue that moving from cultural popularization towards cultural democracy can lead to a shift in responsibilities from professionals towards the general public. With reference to the theoretical background of reception, appropriation and participation, we lead a participant observation on three different fields in order to understand what facilitates and what constrains this shift. This leads us to stress the importance of developing an adequate organizational framework.
57. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Judith Schrempf, Guido Palazzo Historic Corporate Responsibility
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During the last years, historic injustices have been on top of the public agenda revolving around the question of how to deal with difficult pasts. This applies togovernments but also to corporations. We aim at addressing this trend of historic corporate responsibility. We examine corporations as intergenerational moral agents, introduce the problem of historic complicity, and propose a concept of historic corporate responsibility.
58. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Raed Elaydi, Josetta S. McLaughlin Relational Capacity and Firm Performance: A Stakeholder-Relational Perspective
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Relational capacity is the ability to develop and maintain the desired relationships with stakeholders by creating network, information and reciprocityadvantages. It aligns stakeholder theory with relational contract theory, social network analysis and related research streams to develop a “stakeholder-relational-perspective” of firm performance. This perspective views firm relationships built on relational capacity as heterogeneous, flexible and capable of becoming stronger over time. The assumption is that organizations with strong relational capacity can better leverage firm relationships to gain a sustained competitive advantage.
59. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Meredith Church, Martin Meznar Educating for Empathy and Action: The Impact of Study Abroad on Individual Social Responsibility and Global Citizenship
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Global citizenship is a positive outcome often associated with participation in study abroad. One essential building block of global citizenship is a sense of empathy toward those of other cultures. This paper proposes a study of variables that may increase intercultural empathy and global citizenship due to a study abroad experience. Proposed variables contributing to intercultural empathy include integration with the host culture, program duration, the economic and cultural distance of the host country, and the incorporation of guided reflection and cultural study in the program content. The proposed study aims to provide guidelines that can be used in designing future study abroad programs to increase students’ sense of individual social responsibility.
60. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Gerald McLaughlin, Josetta McLaughlin, Jacqueline McLaughlin Rethinking Diversity Metrics and Indices: Alternative Approaches for Social Reporting
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This paper focuses on development of a composite diversity index that is appropriate for use in social reporting. Critics of currents methods argue that simplecounts of race or other attributes for measuring diversity are not sufficient for measuring the complexities of a diverse workplace. To address this criticism, broader and more appropriate diversity indices based on probability and multiple measures are demonstrated by applying quantitative models developed in biodiversity and political science research. US IPEDS data, available for more than 4,500 higher education institutions, are used to demonstrate the model. The paper sets the stage for diversity reporting by describing selected reporting frameworks and relevant court rulings.