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41. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Ronald B. de Sousa Instinct and Teleology
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Positivistic strictures against teleological concepts have lost much of their force, partly because these have become susceptibie to cybernetic-causal explication. Two forms of "quasi-teleology" are distinguished: intentional action ("individual" or "mental" teleology) and the functioning and evolutionary shaping of organs ("species" teleology). The concept of Instinct bridges the two: whence the central role of sexuality in the Freudian scheme. Instinct will likely be reducible to cybemetic terms, but at the present time it may be more useful to psychology and philosophy in its unreconstructed form.
42. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Aleksandar Dejkov The Dialectics of the Abstract and the Concrete and the Problem of the Universals
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In the paper two types of the theory of abstraction are examined. One of them is based on the method of inclusion and exclusion of the abstractions. The other one - on the method of ascending from the abstract to the concrete. Both of the theories have constituted the ground for constructing of two logics: formal and dialectical. Neither one nor the other have an independant meaning in itself novadays.
43. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Ingetraut Dahlberg Universal Organization of Knowledge: Realization Methods
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Attempt to overcome the agnostic idea that a survey over man's knowledge is impossible and that the ability to organize knowledge has been lost (Picht). Principles are presented that went (a) into the overall outline of a new general System for the Organization of knowledge-fields not based on discipiines but on six ontical areas as given by the levels of being (N.Hartmann) augmented by three ontical areas as given by the products of human and societal activities and (b) into the grouping and arrangement of knowledge-units (concepts) within such ontical areas and their knowledge-fields. A diagrammatical display (Fig.1) shows the overall structure achieved by applying the principles mentioned.
44. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Bernard P. Dauenhauer Philosophy and its "Reasons"
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Philosophy has two tasks which are in principle beyond the scope of the positive Sciences. 1) It can clarify the distinctiveness of and interconnections among the several domains of scientific work. Husserlian phenomenology provides a fruitful formulation of the issues involved in this task. 2) It can bring to light a dimension of thought which transcends both the Sciences and any critical theory of scientific knowledge. In discharging this second task, philosophy does not proceed by way of reasons properly so called. Rather, in Heidegger's terms, it involves meditative thinking.
45. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Ljubomir Dramaliev Basic Types of Norms: Moral and Juridical, Ideological and Technological
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The general definition of the norms serves as an initial basis for the analysis. Different kinds of social norms are enumerated: customs, traditions, aesthetic, religious and organizational norms etc... As a base for the analysis the specificity of both morality and law is put forward. The process of interaction of ideological with technological norms is basically different from this one being carried out within the ideological sphere. This conclusion comes from the specificity of technological norms which in principle are deprived of any ideological nature: they do not reflect general social (dass, group, etc.) interests as such.
46. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
A. P. Dmitriyev The System of Knowledge on War and Peace as an Element of a Scientific Outlook
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Under the conditions of the present world development, the knowledge on war and peace makes up a necessary, historically concrete element of an outlook. It exists at the three levels: spontaneous notions within the framework of day-today consciousness; Propaganda conceptions of not scientific ideology; systematized scientific theoretical knowledge. Decisive role in the development of the problem of war and peace, in the integration of a scientific outlook are performed by the theory of Marxism-Leninism.
47. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Hans Ebeling Die Grundstruktur Humaner Selbsterhaltung
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Ich möchte zeigen, daß die Grundstruktur humaner Selbsterhaltung (l) als Differenz von 'natürlicher' und radikal 'freier' Selbsterhaltung gegeben ist, (2) als Differenzbewußtsein im Sachverhalt einer unumgänglichen Freiheitsfiktion vorliegt und dabei (3) als quasi-transzendentale Bedingung des menschlich-bewußten Lebens fungiert. Die Herausforderung der Philosophie durch die moderne Biologie scheint mir damit von der Art, daß die Philosophie in erster Linie zu einer Transformation ihrer Freiheitsbegriffe aufgefordert ist. Der Beitrag skizziert einen solchen Transformationsvorschlag.
48. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Thomas A. Fay Heidegger and Non-Scientific Modes of Thought
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Concerning the scientific mode of thought, Heidegger remarks in Über den Humanismus, "Science appears, thought disappears." He stresses the crucial importance of non-logical, non-scientific modes of thought. But the question must be asked whether in so doing his thought is not delivered over to irrationalism, the domination of blind instinct, and ultimately to incommunicability. This paper suggests that this is not at all the case and that in stressing the importance of non-logical, non-scientific modes of thought, especially the poetic and philosophical, that his thought provides a most useful corrective to the domination and exclusivity which the scientific mode enjoys in our Contemporary world.
49. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
D. V. Ermolenko The Mastering of the Scientific and Technological Progress and Growing of the Anticipatory Function of Human Knowlege
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Understanding of the laws of social life gave an opportunity to develop a System of scientific anticipation which is especially important for social life. Scientific and technological progress which achieved starting the middle of the present Century the level of scientific and technological revolution helped scientific anticipation with a large complex of empirical methods which comprised various Systems of scientific forecasting. If done on the basis of right world-out-look, the forecasting can give a good effect for research of perspectives in Science, technology, social life, international relations, etc.
50. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
James W. Felt Scientific and Other Types of Rationality: The Vanishing of the End: Reflections on Theology in Science and Philosophy
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The Vanishing of the End: Reflections on Teleology in Science and Philosophy. — The discarding of teleological explanations by modern Science vividly illustrates the Whiteheadian view that Science is abstract not only in its conceptualization but also in the selectivity of its interest in details of nature. But philosophy, taken as speculative metaphysics, attempts abstractly to understand nature in its concreteness, omitting nothing, including its drive toward ends.
51. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
L. V. Fessenkova The Dialectical Principle of Development in Application to the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life
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The report represents a substantiation of the world Outlook significance of the idea of extraterrestrial life. The consideration of views of prominent scientists indicates that in the modern System of knowledge the problem of life in the Universe is connected with the application of the dialectical principle of development which provides the substantiation for the idea of extraterrestrial life, fulfils the methodological function in a concrete experimental research aimed at discovering life on other cosmic bodies and forms the general tasks of such research.
52. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Miguel Cirilo Florez Kants Wissenschaftstheorie: Von der Metaphysik zur Geschichte
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Kants Wissenschaftstheorie stellt eine Reflexion über die zwei Grundrichtungen der damaligen Philosophie dar: Mechanismus und Teleologie. Diese Fragestellung ist immer noch von großer Aktualität. Die Weise, wie Kant die wissenschaftliche Rationalität anfaßt, läßt diese Problematik im Horizont des Verhältnisses zwischen Geschichte und System sehen - eine heute unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten behandelte Thematik.
53. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Garai László Sociality and Human Speciality
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In animals as well as in men the re take place a social organization's process which classes different individuals of the same species inside or outside of a certain category. Such a social categorization's process can be carried out by the territorial behavior distinguishing individuals which are, from those which are not "authorized" to occupy a given territory; or by the signalizing behavior distinguishing individuals within a given category. The human specificity does not consist in the fact itself of such kind of social Organization but in its structure which is not in men genetically determined.
54. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Winfried Franzen Hat die Philosophie Ihre Eigene Wahrheit?: Mit einigen Überlegungen zur Stellung der Philosophie zwischen Alltagsverstand und Wissenschaft
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Die Frage nach einer möglichen eigenen Wahrheit der Philosophie kann nicht die Bedeutung von 'wahr' (den Wahrheitsbegriff) betreffen, sondern höchstens die Wahrheitsk riterien. Unter diesem Aspekt werden einige repräsentative Philosophiebegriffe untersucht, mit dem Ergebnis, daß es zumindest problematisch ist, von einer der Philosophie eigenen Wahrheit zu sprechen. Abschließend werden einige Überlegungen zur Fragwürdigkeit eines einheitlichen Philosophiebegriffs sowie ein Vorschlag zur Lokalisierung der Philosophie im Feld zwischen Alltagserkenntnis und Wissenschaft vorgebracht.
55. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
György Fukász Some Philosophical Problems of the Perception of Technology at the age of the Scientifical-Technological Revolution
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The study examines the possibilities of the perception of technology and its structure. The autor emphasizes the role and the importance of subjective side. He examines the object of the perception, in the relation between subject and object, criticising the fetishized concept of it. He analyses the role of the condition / and obstacles /, the methods-ways, efficiency, means of technology. The aim of the research is to establish an up-to-date way of life. The "technological alienation" is emphasized in the paper.
56. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
András Gedó Zur Fragestellung der Genesis des Philosophischen Wissens
57. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
John Glanville Gill Consciousness, the Universe of Discourse
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Consciousness encompasses every aspect of knowledge, the widest universe of discourse. An active principle, consciousness involves the cogito. Consciousness distorts everyday experience, both vision and thought by placing the observer in the center of space and time often with disastrous results. Consciousness implies purpose and value. Consciousness, like light, extends far beyond the visible Spectrum.
58. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Klaus Gößler Hirn, Besusstsein, Gegenständliche Aussenwelt und Gesellschaftliche Praxis
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Auch bürgerliche Neurophysiologen und Psychologen halten die Hirnäbhangigkeit des Denkens als unwiderlegbar erwiesene Tatsache. Autoren, die diese Auffassung vertreten, definieren das neuronale Geschehen als notwendige, aber nicht hinreichende Bedingung von Bewußtsein und Denken. Grundsätzliche Mängel der von ihnen aufgestellten spekulativ-idealistischen Hypothesen über die Natur dieser hinreichenden Bedingungen und die weltanschaulichen Implikationen oben genannter Tatsache der Hirnabhängigkeit des Denkens werden diskutiert. In neun Thesen wird die mögliche Richtung, in der eine solche Hypothese vom Standpunkt des dialektischen und historischen Materialismus aufstellbar ist, skizziert.
59. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Donald W. Gotterbarn The Paradox of "Progress" in Genetic Engineering
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I argue that one of the regulative ideas of genetic engineering is self-contradictory. I first examine the regulative idea of "progress" and show that genetics as a Science requires what I call technological progress and at the same time genetics as evolutionary theory requires what I call natural progress. If there is to be progress in genetic engineering, then it must progress in both of these senses. These two concepts of progress, however, are mutually exclusive. Consequently there can be no progress in the Science of genetics. I then suggest that this problem can be extended to any Science which employs teleological explanation.
60. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
John T. Granrose Ethics and Sociobiology
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The 1975 publication of E.O. Wilson's massive study Sociobiology by Harvard University Press has had a major impact on the American intellectual Community. Since this book explicitly deals with ethics, and since few philosophers have yet responded to it, this paper provides a brief sketch of the central thesis of sociobiology. A preliminary account of some of the possible implications of this emerging scientific discipline for both meta-ethics and normative ethics is then offered.