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61. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Марк Васильевич Желнов Переосмысливание Смерти как онтологической основы Власти в ХХI веке
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Профессор кафедры Философии для естественных факультетов Философского факультета Московского Государственного Университета им. М.В.Ломоносова, Россия 1. Представления о субъективном характере Власти «этого человека» «теперь-и-здесь», а тем более властных структурГосударства, являются Иллюзиями. К концу ХХ века, при стремлении «схватить» растворённое в субъективном объективное (и наоборот), возникает потребность переосмыслить Субъективно-Объективный характер «онтологической основы Власти», и, соответственно, понимание онтологичности Смерти как Объективно-Субъективного процесса, а также различное понимание сути и роли диапазона «от Рождения-Жизни к Смерти» для «этого человека» «теперь-и-здесь». 2. В XXI веке складывается ситуация, когда оказывается возможным как бы возврат кисторически предшествующему ходу мысли: «от Смерти к Жизни-Рождению». "Смерть как Жизнь", а не "Жизнь как Смерть". 3. В пределах противостояния идеологии христианства и радикального исламизма, в ХХI веке, возникла потребность в переосмысливании соотношения «Власти как онтологической основы Смерти» и «Смерти как онтологической основы Власти». В частности, о возможном как бы «превалировании», надостаточно больших этапов времени, одной из сторон или их относительной «паритетности».4. В рамках исламских конфессий появились течения, которые культивируют понимание Смерти как онтологической основы Власти» как бы «в перевернутом виде». Сознательно идущие на массовуюсмерть террористы, видят в ней средство позволяющее, в соответствии с предполагаемыми идеалами, подтолкнуть общество к установлению иной власти. Более резко проявилась исходная двойственность фанатической фаталистичности авраамических религиозных конфессий, особенно ислама. 5. На сегодняшний день лишь в теории Смерть могла бы перестать быть онтологической основой власти, если господствующейстала бы другая онтологическая основа Власти – «чисто духовная Идея». Мир прежней Власти в той или иной степени оказался бы против неё бессилен. XXI век даёт примеры соответствующих «больших флуктуаций», но изменить «онто» он не в состоянии. Источником глобальных изменений и катастроф является «этот человек» «теперь-и-здесь» как специфическая "искусственная природа", изменить искусственность которой нельзя, не уничтожив самого человека. XXI век требует переосмысление реальных интенций действий людей, оказавшихся "вывернутыми наизнанку", а также существенно преобразующихся «предмета Философии» и собственно «Философствования».
62. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Anatoly N. Arlychev Проблема материального начала мира в философии и науке
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The author of the paper ascertains that in the treatment of material beginning of the world two opposed methods of approach had grown up: qualitative and quantitative ones. The first can be traced back to Miletus school. The other goes to Pythagorean philosophy. The qualitative treatment (Aristotelian one in the main) predominated from the fourth century B.C. to early XVII A.D. But from the second part of the XVII age and right up to our days the quantitative approach plays prevalent role not in philosophy only, but also in exact natural sciences. The author supposes that these two approaches don’t exclude, but compensate each other, and no one of them should dominate. Both methods can resolve own epistemological tasks. Unfortunately, from I.Newton, quantitative approach has prevailed in natural sciences. Ignoring qualitative method, scientists (especially of nowodays) try to resolve the epistemological problems of cognition natural phenomena with its help. As a result arbitrary formal mathematical theories come into existence. Such conceptions create only semblance of resolution theproblem. Among them the author reckons for example the Large Burst theory, based on the model of enlarging universe and also the theory of planetary model of atom.In the paper author refers to his own scholarly works, where he proposes by the way alternative conception evolution of universe.
63. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Невелев Анатолий Борисович Бытие человека: единство предметности и энергийности
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Культура, представляя собой систематически воспроизводимую форму отношения человека и мира, делает их предметными. Поскольку человек ‐ захваченное миром, желающее существо, постольку и энергия (деятельная способность) его желания также предметна. Предметность иэнергийность бытия человека в их взаимодействии определяют качество его персональной идентичности. Четыре слоя предметного бытия человека задают соответствующее строение его персональной идентичности.
64. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Метлов В.И. Онтология, Гносеология, Историзм
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The idea of evolution introducing a temporal parameter in the characteristics of the objects of nearly all the branches of the contemporary scientific researches and by this way involving them in a historical movement is confronted with a necessity of the correct definition of the thing submitted to evolutionary process combining substantial and dynamical aspects. In the searches of a solution of this problem one can not count on the history of society, all the more so as in this domain the problem of characteristic of its object is of the same acuteness as in the others domains. In fact, we are facing now a sort of crisis of the idea of the historicism reduced finally to the crisis of the thingness (M. Heidegger), and its expression is quite identical both in the natural and the social sciences. Difficulties of the more general order which are at the basis of that crisis can be described as the difficulties of a conceptualization of the totality and the movement. On the most general level they are presented as two kinds of metaphysics – the metaphysics of substance and the metaphysics of becoming (A.N. Whitehead). G.W.F. Hegel can be mentioned as one who indicated the general way to eliminate (sublate) the difficulties: the forming the concepts capable to support the contradictions, to sublate (aufheben) the antinomies. In the evolutionary biology this kind of solution is given by the notion of species enriched by the results of the genetics (Chetverikov S.S.), in social sciences - by the socio-economical formation (K. Marx).
65. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Nadezda Rodnova Онтологическое Изучение Этнокультурных Противоречий
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Noting that among the changes wrought by globalization is a constantly accelerated influx of new knowledge and information. The majority of this information remains poorly analyzed, is not clearly understood, and is often unused. The author believes that, apparently, mankind is entering a new epoch of inevitability ofthinking by essences, instead of particulars, i.e. to an epoch of ontological thinking. In work, proceeding from a possibility of synthetic judgements a priori, the author considers ethnocultural contradictions with the help of a technique of ontological knowledge, i.e. aprioristic synthesis. Ethnocultural relations are considered by the author as a component of the general global process of various mutual relations in their historical development. Using a method of ontologic synthesis, the author synthesizes three essences: ● morals, as essence of accumulation of experience; ● the natural right, as essence of comprehension of experience; ● the legal right, as essence of application of experience. Morals is only the precondition for the growth of human mentality; firstly, from morals up to the natural right, and then to constitutional, legal and other laws. Interethnic contradictions arise not on the basis of ethnocultural, religious and confessional distinctions, but on absence of a legislative foundation for harmonization of interstate and international life. With a view of sustainable development, the main strategic priorities of modern activities should be the development of scientifically proved laws and the effective monitoring system of their performance.
66. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Зинаида Иванова Этническая и национальная идентичность в контексте массовой миграции
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Доклад посвящен проблеме формирования и проявления этнической и национальной идентичности в условиях усиливающейся массовой миграции в современном мире. Отмечается, что идентичность не только мигрантов, но и коренного населения формируется в результате наложения разнообразных культурных влияний, зачастую не совпадающих друг с другом. В зависимости от того, какие культуры воздействуют на человека, и как их воспринимает индивид, складываются разные формы идентичности: бикультурная, «разбитая», маргинальная. Особое психологическое состояние современной личности – кризис идентичностей. Автор различает понятия «этническая» и «национальная»идентичность, имея в виду идентичности двух общностей разного порядка. Этническая идентичность практически не подвержена изменениям, так как коренится в глубинных структурах психики, хотя и приобретается в результате социализации личности. Национальная идентичность связана сотождествлением с нацией – этатистским образованием, состоящим, как правило, из множества этносов. Она также достаточно устойчива, но при определенных условиях может измениться. Вывод автора: некоторые формы идентичности личности эпохи глобализации обладают определеннойгибкостью, подвижностью и изменчивостью.
67. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
С.А. Нижников Преобразование метафизики в творчестве И. Канта и возможность веры
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The subject of author’s reflection is transformation of metaphysics in creativity of I. Kant and an opportunity of faith on the basis of new existential ontology. It begins from opportunity developing of new metaphysics in the works of Kant and then – Heidegger. There is a problem in understanding of metaphysics inKant’s art. From author’s point of view Kant tried to create a new type of ontology as a real metaphysics that doesn’t destroy the faith if one understands it non-metaphysically. Even more – Kant’s and Heidegger’s new ontology can produce and have already produced a new type of faith understanding. This transcendental and aprioristic faith is the inner essence of different faiths, which objected in religions. Nowadays this faith must be opened and rethought,because it can helps to solve global spiritual problems of mankind. Only real (ontological) and humanistic knowledge can spiritually unite persons and peoples.
68. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Р.В. Псху Становление суфийского языка в творчестве ан-Ниффари (X в.)
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One of most vivid examples of deep penetration of the Koran in Sufi consciousness which result became original mystical language is The Book of Spiritual Stayings of Muhammad al-Niffari (d. 977), an obscure figure in the history of Islamic Mysticism. As the main intermediaries-obstacles between the God and the person аl-Niffari considers three stages: 1) letter (harf), or Koran, 2) knowledge (ilm), 3) gnosis (ma’rifah). All three, in opinion al-Niffari, represent the veils hiding the God from Sufi. The language of this Book is paradoxical and such paradoxicality shows the abnormal condition of Sufi consciousness and impossibility of expressing his mutual relation with God. Al-Niffari tries to demonstrate that any attempt of verbal expression of Supreme Essence is doomed to failure. The mostcharacteristic of Niffari’s doctrines is the doctrine of waqfah. Waqfah is regarded as the spirit of ma’rifah: whereas ma’rifah sees God and itself also, waqfah sees only God and it is God’s presence. Ma’rifah is the limit of the utterable, but waqfah is beyond the utterable. The Book of Spiritual Stayings may be regarded as an unique interpretation experience of Koran overcoming it as obstacle on the way toward to God. Owing to it the principle of unity of Deity is preserved in its purity.
69. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Manzura N. Kabulova Проблема человека в западной и восточной цивилизации
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In given clause features of mentality of western and east person are considered. The author comes to opinion that there is a significant difference of outlooks of the people living in the East and the West. The author writes, that features of mentality of the West and the East were affected with features of labour activity, themaintenance of religious and philosophical forms of public consciousness. In the end of clause the author comes to conclusion, that despite of differention of mentality of the East and the West, they are necessary each other as they supplement and rich each other.
70. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Svetlana Efimova Globalization and Problem of Survival as a Saving Strategy
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The problem of globalization is actual nowdays that it’s necessary to understand what it is for those who is engaged in this process. It is clear that for some persons globalization is a myth which makes to adopt and to develop the strategy of surviving when all the roles are distributed and there is no opportunity to get the main roles because the aim is to servive keeping available wealth or improving it a little. Globalization as utopia theory appeares at that time when a human being began to think about his place among other persons and it is connected with activity in reaching the ideal, to compromise or to oppose to those who determine ideology of the process. However understanding of globalization as ideology is the main thing but in this case it leads both to negative and positivemoments in human development. Heavy consequences are those of lost of identity and forming negative identity of whole nations. It’s the reason of appearing of irreversible consequences that is antiglobalizm in the best case and terrorism in the worst case. Globalization is eager to unite the world to keep stable unity of the world as the guarantee of the humanity saving in the whole and each person as well. So it gets into a trap of the old world arrangement according its external signs but a person and his life is out of this arrangement. That is why it is necessary to find the method which will make different the attitude to information flows and will pay attention to the problems of identity in the process of globalization.
71. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
О.Д. Маслобоева Российский органицизм и космизм о роли субъективного фактора в современном мире
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The report examines philosophic and anthropological aspects of the modern mankind vital activity on the basis of revised understanding of ideological and methodological content of the Russian XIX-XX century organicists’ and cosmists’ ideas. The author substantiates the position, in accordance to which the place of a human in the world, the nature of their relations with the world, being an eternal philosophical subject, determines the ideological content and significance of modern human problems. The efficiency of mastering the current situation of a human in the world depends to a great deal on continuing introspection between different generations of professional philosophers. The author proposes to realize global ideological reorientation, which took place in the world history as a result of the late XVIII - early XIX century industrial revolution, by comparing meditative and behavioral types of ideology. The main contradiction of the behavioral type of ideology is shown as methodology of comparing the subjective and objective factors of history, which fundamentals were laid by the Russian XIXXXcentury organicism and cosmism. This methodology allows studying boundaries of freedom and the amount of responsibility of modern mankind for its destiny and the destiny of its world.
72. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Невелева Вера Сергеевна Антропологический принцип в контексте «реальной философии»
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Рассматривается проблема человека как проблема, посредством которой в современной философии осуществляется саморефлексия, философия вновь оказывается по отношению к себе самой под вопросом. Традиционное для философской антропологии метафизическое понимание человека может быть переосмыслено на пути соединения дискурсов о бытии и о человеке в крнцепции «антропологической онтологии». Для антропологии важно вернуться из состояния «забвения человека», обратившись его к изначально бытийному измерению. В переосмыслениинуждается Основное исходное положение философской антропологии – антропологический принцип интерпретируется с точки зрения различения «реальной философии» и «философии учений и систем». Акцентирование регистра реальной философии позволяет вести речь об этом принципе в онтическом смысле, как о человеке-принципе, реальном единстве принципа и лица. При этом масштаб принципа всегда соразмерен масштабу лица. Человек-принцип – носитель индивидуального опыта, в котором выявляется общезначимый принцип как форма организации жизни людей, как исток истории.
73. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Anna Koteneva Spiritual-Moral Aspect in Investigation of Personality's Psychological Defense
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Investigation of spiritual-moral factors of psychological defence of personality is being put in practice through Christian cognition about a man and with the help of modern psychological achievement in science. The most important spiritual factors are sin and passion. Sin is observed as one of the reasons of moral men'sdiseases, which brings to moral, psychological and body's destructions and unconscious psychological defence. Defensive mechanisms is the way to support men's sin passion, blunt conscience, keep positive illusion and unbroken “I” of his personality. All the necessary ways to overcome destructive psychologicaldefence and to get mental healthy are being observed. Confession, prayer, keep eating, taking part in Church Mystery, charity-wisdom are the main ways in Christian Tradition.
74. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Halil Barlybaev Philosophical Anthropology in Context of Globalization and Sustainable Development
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Interconnections between philosophic anthropology, conceptions of globalization and sustainable development are investigated. Found out that biological, social, intellectual and spiritual parameters of human being determine specific directions and spheres of globalization. Discovering of these interconnectionsallows to make clear necessary measures of transition to sustainable development. Substantiated that such researches serve as a basis for working out of political, economic, social, intellectual and spiritual guidelines of ensuring of reliable international communication’s security, survival of mankind and solution of internal problems of every country. Investigations of interconnections between philosophic anthropology, conceptions of globalization and sustainable development could became as a mainstream of development of philosophy in XXI century.
75. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Nadezhda V. Isakova The Modeling Possibilities of the Humanities: The Cultural-Anthropological Model of the Human Life Activities
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The transition period brings about a need of working out the social strategy. It optimizes the social processes and helps to use carefully the resources of the society. Its essence is a human being measure of the social things (phenomena and processes) since a human being is the system forming element of a social system. Then it is necessary to analyze a human being as a system himself for concretizing the content of «a human being measure». A human being is researched by the whole complex of the sciences. The humanities take a specific place. Them subject is the specific features of a human being, the consciousness of a man which defines a whole him life activities. Therefore the humanities play a leading part in the system researches of a human being. But there is significant to integrate the humanitarian knowledge himself. The hierarchy of the approaches is such: philosophical – culturological – ethnological –philological (folklore). This hierarchy gives opportunity to form the system knowledge beginning from interpreting the essence of a human being as the norm of his activities to its concrete characteristics. The hypothetic many levels model of the human activities (as analysis shows, cultural-anthropological by its content)serves as means for the well-founded choice of the future, the appreciation of the present through its prism, the electoral relation to the past and the purposeful influence on the social policy.
76. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Сергей Смирных Гегель: парадигма свободы
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The absolute characteristic and function of spirit is effective reason, i.e. the self-determining and self-realizing notion itself – Liberty (Hegel). This process is a system of three conclusions of the logical idea of real as absolute spirit.
77. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 20
Л. В. Денисова Мировоззренческий конструктивизм в философской антропологии
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The article presents the results of the research of Weltanschaung constructivism types, arising from different ideas about the sources of life. It’s noted that existentional need of the source of life search provokes four Weltanschaung concepts, with strong anthropological content each. The concepts in question are:God, Nature, Society and Human. These four serve as the basis for the following philosophical theories: theo-centrism, nature-centrism, society-centrism and anthropo-centrism. The analysis of the given above theories makes evident that within the first three concepts the image of a human as a child is created, whereas the last views a human as mature, freedom possessing and responsible for his actions and other sources of life.
78. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Anton Gordeev Протестантизм как основа современного капитализма
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Society economics has been always connected with religious and ethic views of each people. A lot of philosophers and theologists closely studied the problem of synthesis and mutual influence of these social institutions. Within the frame of historical development of philosophy there were such periods. The most illustrative example of such synthesis, maybe, is the parallel development of Protestantism and capitalism. It is possible to note this world tendency in the places with strong protestant influence (in particular its conservative branch – kalvinism). Capitalism influence is also strong enough. Kalvin was the first to speak against the capital growth condemnation. He considered economy to be a natural aspect of man’s life which should be regulated in agreement with Bible. It’s worth noting that Kalvinist approach to personal life bred a new type of ascets in secular world very wealthy people who consider their wealth as their duty to the God. The main goal of these people was accumulation for accumulation sake and for their possibility of soul salvation but not for their demand satisfaction. These people consider themselves as some kind of tool; their direct religious duty was to accumulate wealth. This was the essence of “protestant spirit”, the intersection point of capitalism and Protestantism, the starting point of political economics.
79. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Boris F. Kalachev Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past through the Present Time and to the Future
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There is no broad dispute in the doctrine on the matter how and on what purpose did the drugs appear in the nature and in the society. Why does a certain spectrum of light and sound waves and electromagnetic radiations bring a person into a state of euphoria? The Author has united biological and chemical substances as well as the sources of other origin changing person’s consciousness into a joint hypersystem: narcogenes’ movement recorded in the past,observable in the present and expected in the future. It is admissible to associate the sources of formation of the modern variety of narcogens with the origin of life by means of «the reasonable plan», «lucky coincidence», panspermia in their interaction or otherwise. The life distribution on the Earth during 3.5 billion years with the participation of narcogenes has caused such global phenomena as drug trafficking and narcomania (toxicomania). Today narcogenes are discovered in all earthly environments and the vector of theirmovement is directed by a man beyond the limits of the earthly surface. In a set of regular medicines they are placed onboard tens thousands flight vehicles, shuttles and ISS are supplied with them. In 1969 onboard «Apollo-11» narcogens were first delivered to an orbitof the Moon. The happenings of their «exterrestia» consumption on the circumterrestrial orbit have already been recorded. Onward are narcogenic mixers, nanorobots, transferring narcogenes in a human’s brain and so forth. The postglobal scope of the narcogenes’ movement may get a colossal swing as the people develop the deep space, build circumplanetary settlements (upward 10 thousand people) and planetary colonies. It is time that the scientists payattention to the prognostic side of the problem under consideration and develop preemptive measures.
80. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
С.А. Нижников Преобразование метафизики в творчестве И. Канта и возможность веры
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The subject of author’s reflection is transformation of metaphysics in creativity of I. Kant and an opportunity of faith on the basis of new existential ontology. It begins from opportunity developing of new metaphysics in the works of Kant and then – Heidegger. There is a problem in understanding of metaphysics inKant’s art. From author’s point of view Kant tried to create a new type of ontology as a real metaphysics that doesn’t destroy the faith if one understands it non-metaphysically. Even more – Kant’s and Heidegger’s new ontology can produce and have already produced a new type of faith understanding. This transcendental and aprioristic faith is the inner essence of different faiths, which objected in religions. Nowadays this faith must be opened and rethought,because it can helps to solve global spiritual problems of mankind. Only real (ontological) and humanistic knowledge can spiritually unite persons and peoples.