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61. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Meredith Church, Martin Meznar Educating for Empathy and Action: The Impact of Study Abroad on Individual Social Responsibility and Global Citizenship
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Global citizenship is a positive outcome often associated with participation in study abroad. One essential building block of global citizenship is a sense of empathy toward those of other cultures. This paper proposes a study of variables that may increase intercultural empathy and global citizenship due to a study abroad experience. Proposed variables contributing to intercultural empathy include integration with the host culture, program duration, the economic and cultural distance of the host country, and the incorporation of guided reflection and cultural study in the program content. The proposed study aims to provide guidelines that can be used in designing future study abroad programs to increase students’ sense of individual social responsibility.
62. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
2012 Conference Attendees
63. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Gordon Rands Remarks by the Conference Chair
64. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Gerald McLaughlin, Josetta McLaughlin, Jacqueline McLaughlin Rethinking Diversity Metrics and Indices: Alternative Approaches for Social Reporting
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This paper focuses on development of a composite diversity index that is appropriate for use in social reporting. Critics of currents methods argue that simplecounts of race or other attributes for measuring diversity are not sufficient for measuring the complexities of a diverse workplace. To address this criticism, broader and more appropriate diversity indices based on probability and multiple measures are demonstrated by applying quantitative models developed in biodiversity and political science research. US IPEDS data, available for more than 4,500 higher education institutions, are used to demonstrate the model. The paper sets the stage for diversity reporting by describing selected reporting frameworks and relevant court rulings.
65. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
2012 Conference Reviewers
66. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
About these Proceedings
67. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
R. Spencer Foster Fertile Ground: A Social Network Analysis of Generations of the Environmental Movement
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The environmental movement continues to be a dynamic force for protection of the environment despite new organizations emerging from the “birthing” process of the formation of new groups via factions and schisms. I focus on two aspects of the evolution of the environmental movement: how do new organizations emerge from existing environmental groups via benevolent or divisive mechanisms; and, which organizations produce new organizations? I develop a family tree of the American environmental movement from 1955 – 2005 and identify the mechanisms that result in the formation of new organizations from a sample of 48 environmental organizations. I use social network analysis to identify which environmental organizations were most likely to produce new groups and set the stage for future inquiries into how new environmental organizations reestablish and maintain connections with their progenitors.
68. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Aimee Dars Ellis, Michael McCall For Me or for You? The Relative Power of Rebates for a Cause
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In traditional rebates, consumers submit proof of purchase for an item and then receive a portion of the purchase price, usually in the form of a check or gift card. In contrast, when a consumer redeems a cause rebate, a cash reward is given not to the consumer but to a non-profit organization (Ellis & McCall, 2011). In this paper, we aim to determine the attitudes toward and effectiveness of cause rebates versus traditional rebates. This will help marketers develop more effective rebate programs for their products. We also will investigate characteristics of consumers more likely to redeem cause rebates. Cause rebates represent a mechanism by which businesses can promote personal responsibility on the part of consumers and help draw attention to and raise funds for social and environmental issues.
69. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Karen Paul Online Business Ethics/Business and Society Courses: Notes on Personal Responsibility from the Virtual Classroom
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Online teaching is consistent with the educational tradition of extension and distance learning, but its recent expansion creates new issues, especially in teaching business ethics/business and society. Students, professors, and especially administrators benefit greatly from some aspects of online learning. Online learning has such advantages over the traditional classroom in logistical flexibility and cost efficiency that decision-making may become overly pragmatic. There are special challenges in teaching business ethics/business and society online, as the subject matter requires nuanced judgment rather than right-or-wrong answers.
70. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Karen Paul, Rajat Panwar Where Does Legitimacy Come From? The Role of Company Ownership Type, Perceived Capacity, and Ideology
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Business legitimacy is important for any business, especially in times of economic downturn and increased media attention on corporate scandals. However,legitimacy is a quality that comes from society itself, sometimes influenced by the actions or image of the firm, but also rooted in the basic cultural values of the population. This study takes “legitimacy gap” as its dependent variable, defining it as the difference between expected and observed levels of social and environmental performance for both publicly-traded and family-owned business. The study was conducted with a random sample using mailed surveys, and was oriented towards the forest products sector. Results indicate that family-owned businesses have lower legitimacy gaps (therefore, higher legitimacy) than publicly-traded companies, especially when the latter are considered very profitable. These findings were especially strong for women and for respondentswith a high social responsibility (SRO) orientation.
71. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
IABS Leadership
72. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Terri Friel, Josetta McLaughlin Barriers to Change: Bringing Sustainable Development and Climate Change Content into the Curriculum
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This paper presents results from the analysis of business school dean responses to a survey designed to determine how sustainability, including sustainable business practices and climate change content, is being incorporated into business school curriculum. Information is also gathered on how schools and colleges of business are preparing instructors to incorporate sustainability-related content into their courses, the preferred programmatic approaches for offering content to students, and the barriers that impede modification of current curriculum to incorporate sustainability. It concludes with a discussion of research that colleges and schools of business might conduct as part of their strategy to better understand how to bring their curriculum into alignment with new student demands for these topics. Background information on higher education commitment to sustainability is provided.
73. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
IABS Past Presidents, Conference Chairs, and Proceedings Editors
74. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
2012 Conference Program
75. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
James Weber, John Wargofchik The Institutionalization of Sustainability in Business Organizations: A Developmental, Multi-Stage, Multi-Dimensional Model
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This paper explores the research question: Do all businesses institutionalize sustainability into their organizations in the same way, in the same sequence or to the same degree? Utilizing a grounded theory approach, a developmental, multi-stage and multi-dimensional model is constructed to better describe how sustainability is institutionalized in the business organization.
76. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Josetta S. McLaughlin, Raed Elaydi Aesthetic Consumption: The Alignment of Social Value, Consumers, and the Entrepreneur
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This research focuses on a particular type of “aesthetic consumption” that meets the needs of consumers and entrepreneurs who are aware of the negativeconsequences of purchasing behaviors. Aesthetic consumption offsets perceived undesirable impacts by infusing social values into purchase decisions and business models. A framework is introduced that describes the response to this type of consumption by aesthetic consumers and “aesthetic entrepreneurs.” The discussion supports future research on factors supporting aesthetic consumption and on how aesthetic consumption differs from other purchasing behavior in a world that is increasingly concerned about sustainability.
77. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Melissa Baucus Remarks By The Conference Chair
78. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Linda M. Sama, R. Mitch Casselman The Dark Side of Fairtrade© in BOP Markets: Critical Perspectives and a Case Study
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Fairtrade-certified products are sold through retailers to consumers who are willing to pay a premium in exchange for assurances that products were produced under acceptable working and environmental conditions, and that farmers were paid a fair market price. While touted as a positive social innovation, the Fairtrade movement has invited critical scrutiny and in its wake, suggestions for improvements in terms of sustainability, transparency, and tangible benefits for producers subsisting in Base of Pyramid (BOP) markets. In this paper, we uncover the debate swirling around Fairtrade and stipulate as to the theoretical reasoning for why the system should work and why it can fail. Focusing on the coffee industry, a case study of a socially responsible coffee roaster in Kansas City illustrates one of the alternative business models we discuss that seeks to solve the same problems addressed through Fairtrade, albeit through different producer-buyer relationships.
79. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Robbin Derry, Michael B. Elmes Hunger, Hegemony, and Inequality: The Discourse of Food in the U.S.
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This paper addresses the intertwined issues of rising income inequality and food insecurity in the U.S. The ways that food security and insecurity are defined anddiscussed by the major agricultural companies are contrasted with the concepts and definitions used by food sovereignty activists. We argue that the hegemonic discourse of hunger and food security articulated and disseminated by the agricultural production companies, such as Monsanto and Cargill, contributes to, rather than alleviates widespread food insecurity. Local and regional food production offer alternatives that enable low income people to control and optimize their food choices.
80. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
IABS Leadership