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61. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
R. Spencer Foster Fertile Ground: A Social Network Analysis of Generations of the Environmental Movement
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The environmental movement continues to be a dynamic force for protection of the environment despite new organizations emerging from the “birthing” process of the formation of new groups via factions and schisms. I focus on two aspects of the evolution of the environmental movement: how do new organizations emerge from existing environmental groups via benevolent or divisive mechanisms; and, which organizations produce new organizations? I develop a family tree of the American environmental movement from 1955 – 2005 and identify the mechanisms that result in the formation of new organizations from a sample of 48 environmental organizations. I use social network analysis to identify which environmental organizations were most likely to produce new groups and set the stage for future inquiries into how new environmental organizations reestablish and maintain connections with their progenitors.
62. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Aimee Dars Ellis, Michael McCall For Me or for You? The Relative Power of Rebates for a Cause
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In traditional rebates, consumers submit proof of purchase for an item and then receive a portion of the purchase price, usually in the form of a check or gift card. In contrast, when a consumer redeems a cause rebate, a cash reward is given not to the consumer but to a non-profit organization (Ellis & McCall, 2011). In this paper, we aim to determine the attitudes toward and effectiveness of cause rebates versus traditional rebates. This will help marketers develop more effective rebate programs for their products. We also will investigate characteristics of consumers more likely to redeem cause rebates. Cause rebates represent a mechanism by which businesses can promote personal responsibility on the part of consumers and help draw attention to and raise funds for social and environmental issues.
63. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Karen Paul Online Business Ethics/Business and Society Courses: Notes on Personal Responsibility from the Virtual Classroom
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Online teaching is consistent with the educational tradition of extension and distance learning, but its recent expansion creates new issues, especially in teaching business ethics/business and society. Students, professors, and especially administrators benefit greatly from some aspects of online learning. Online learning has such advantages over the traditional classroom in logistical flexibility and cost efficiency that decision-making may become overly pragmatic. There are special challenges in teaching business ethics/business and society online, as the subject matter requires nuanced judgment rather than right-or-wrong answers.
64. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Karen Paul, Rajat Panwar Where Does Legitimacy Come From? The Role of Company Ownership Type, Perceived Capacity, and Ideology
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Business legitimacy is important for any business, especially in times of economic downturn and increased media attention on corporate scandals. However,legitimacy is a quality that comes from society itself, sometimes influenced by the actions or image of the firm, but also rooted in the basic cultural values of the population. This study takes “legitimacy gap” as its dependent variable, defining it as the difference between expected and observed levels of social and environmental performance for both publicly-traded and family-owned business. The study was conducted with a random sample using mailed surveys, and was oriented towards the forest products sector. Results indicate that family-owned businesses have lower legitimacy gaps (therefore, higher legitimacy) than publicly-traded companies, especially when the latter are considered very profitable. These findings were especially strong for women and for respondentswith a high social responsibility (SRO) orientation.
65. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Terri Friel, Josetta McLaughlin Barriers to Change: Bringing Sustainable Development and Climate Change Content into the Curriculum
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This paper presents results from the analysis of business school dean responses to a survey designed to determine how sustainability, including sustainable business practices and climate change content, is being incorporated into business school curriculum. Information is also gathered on how schools and colleges of business are preparing instructors to incorporate sustainability-related content into their courses, the preferred programmatic approaches for offering content to students, and the barriers that impede modification of current curriculum to incorporate sustainability. It concludes with a discussion of research that colleges and schools of business might conduct as part of their strategy to better understand how to bring their curriculum into alignment with new student demands for these topics. Background information on higher education commitment to sustainability is provided.
66. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
James Weber, John Wargofchik The Institutionalization of Sustainability in Business Organizations: A Developmental, Multi-Stage, Multi-Dimensional Model
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This paper explores the research question: Do all businesses institutionalize sustainability into their organizations in the same way, in the same sequence or to the same degree? Utilizing a grounded theory approach, a developmental, multi-stage and multi-dimensional model is constructed to better describe how sustainability is institutionalized in the business organization.
67. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2012
Josetta S. McLaughlin, Raed Elaydi Aesthetic Consumption: The Alignment of Social Value, Consumers, and the Entrepreneur
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This research focuses on a particular type of “aesthetic consumption” that meets the needs of consumers and entrepreneurs who are aware of the negativeconsequences of purchasing behaviors. Aesthetic consumption offsets perceived undesirable impacts by infusing social values into purchase decisions and business models. A framework is introduced that describes the response to this type of consumption by aesthetic consumers and “aesthetic entrepreneurs.” The discussion supports future research on factors supporting aesthetic consumption and on how aesthetic consumption differs from other purchasing behavior in a world that is increasingly concerned about sustainability.
68. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Linda M. Sama, R. Mitch Casselman The Dark Side of Fairtrade© in BOP Markets: Critical Perspectives and a Case Study
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Fairtrade-certified products are sold through retailers to consumers who are willing to pay a premium in exchange for assurances that products were produced under acceptable working and environmental conditions, and that farmers were paid a fair market price. While touted as a positive social innovation, the Fairtrade movement has invited critical scrutiny and in its wake, suggestions for improvements in terms of sustainability, transparency, and tangible benefits for producers subsisting in Base of Pyramid (BOP) markets. In this paper, we uncover the debate swirling around Fairtrade and stipulate as to the theoretical reasoning for why the system should work and why it can fail. Focusing on the coffee industry, a case study of a socially responsible coffee roaster in Kansas City illustrates one of the alternative business models we discuss that seeks to solve the same problems addressed through Fairtrade, albeit through different producer-buyer relationships.
69. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Robbin Derry, Michael B. Elmes Hunger, Hegemony, and Inequality: The Discourse of Food in the U.S.
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This paper addresses the intertwined issues of rising income inequality and food insecurity in the U.S. The ways that food security and insecurity are defined anddiscussed by the major agricultural companies are contrasted with the concepts and definitions used by food sovereignty activists. We argue that the hegemonic discourse of hunger and food security articulated and disseminated by the agricultural production companies, such as Monsanto and Cargill, contributes to, rather than alleviates widespread food insecurity. Local and regional food production offer alternatives that enable low income people to control and optimize their food choices.
70. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Thomas Schneider Stakeholder Identities, Trust and Cooperation: A Social Identity Perspective
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I introduce a conceptualization of stakeholders as social groups and of stakeholder relationships as intergroup processes. Drawing on instrumental stakeholdertheory and social identity theory, I argue that salient stakeholder identities affect trust and cooperation in issue-based stakeholder relationships differently. Two web-based experimental studies are presented to support this claim. Study 1 (N = 115) provides evidence for the negative impact of salient specific stakeholder identities on trust and cooperation among stakeholders in the context of a complex issue. Study 2 (N = 83) introduces the concept of a superordinated stakeholder identity to counteract these harmful consequences of salient specific stakeholder identities. Further, both studies support the hypothesis of intergroup trust being a mediator of the relationship between an individual’s identification with a stakeholder group and cooperation.
71. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Tanusree Jain The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Corporate Social Orientation: A Comparative Analysis of U.S., German and Indian Companies
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This paper addresses two main issues. First, it develops a systematic mechanism to examine corporate social orientation (CSO) by contextualizing the researcharound the 2007 global financial crisis and second, it applies this mechanism to compare the CSOs across the U.S., Germany and India. Using a 7-code index of CSO on a sample of financial companies across the three countries, this paper captures the dissolution of loose couplings between corporate private intentions and corporate public pretentions thereby exposing the de-facto CSOs. The results provide evidence of country of origin effects on CSO and capture the dynamic aspect of CSO, not yet shown in previous studies.
72. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Aimee Dars Ellis, Katherine Oertel Challenging Consumer Behavior: Reducing the Use of Bottled Water at the IABS Conference
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Bottled water drains natural resources and harms the environment. Yet, sometimes conference attendees rely on bottled water for the sake of convenience. Thispaper, summarizing our interactive session, outlines the issues associated with the manufacture, distribution, and disposal of bottled water. Next, we present results of the Bottled Water Challenge, summarizing attendees ideas for reducing the use of bottled water at IABS. Finally, we outline how the Bottled Water Challenge can be adapted for other instructional uses.
73. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Deborah L. Kidder, John R. Ogilvie Social Innovations in the Classroom: Reconceptualizing the Teaching of Negotiations Skills to Business Students
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The purpose of this paper is to describe an empirical study aimed at examining whether a student’s competitiveness orientation in a negotiation class could be shifted to a more socially responsible collaborative orientation. Several subtle manipulations were made between two different sections of the same undergraduate negotiation class. Data on competitiveness, empathy and perspective taking were collected at the beginning and again at the conclusion of the class. While sample size limited the impact of the findings, the data suggested that the manipulations may have had a positive effect.
74. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Laquita C. Blockson, Judith A. White, John Dienhart Teaching Business and Society / Business Ethics Content to Adult Learners
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This workshop complemented a Professional Development Workshop offered at the 2012 Academy of Management meeting on “Effective online teaching for social and environmental topics.” This workshop provided new perspectives on how to adapt and enhance Business & Society/Business Ethics (B&S/BE) undergraduate courses with the adult learner in mind. This workshop was led by conference participants who have experience teaching B&S/BE courses for adult learners.
75. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Kathie L. Court Mapping the Economic Contribution of Women Entrepreneurs
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The purpose of this research was to discover and describe the economic contribution one group of women entrepreneurs. The research participants were lowresource and laid-off women who had graduated from a Microenterprise Assistance Program (MEP). There was no differentiation among women by age, race, or ethnicity. The theoretical landscape that underpins this research includes economic geography and women entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurship and economic development. This research provided a geographic representation of the dispersion and volume of the self-reported business expenses of women entrepreneurs located in one geographic area. In addition, this research developed and examined the viability of an assessment tool that maps the business payments made by entrepreneurs.
76. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Caterina Tantalo, Bruce Paton Value Innovation through Value Co-creation: The Stewardship Model in an Italian SME
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Recent studies have shown that we should re-think the value creation process leveraging the utility functions of multiple stakeholders (Harrison et al., 2010; Tantalo and Priem, 2010; Tantalo, 2011). Following this approach, we develop a case study that shows a real example of shared value creation. The case focuses on Palm, a small Italian pallet manufacturer that has adopted a socially and environmentally conscious business model that produces value for multiple stakeholders.
77. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
John M. Holcomb Corporate Electoral Activities and the 2012 Elections: Impact of the Citizens United Decision
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This paper challenges the conventional wisdom concerning the impact of the Citizens United v. FEC decision by examining the flow of corporate money into the 2012 election. The decision, which is consistent with most prior case law and was not a radical departure, promoted the use of super PACs and 501-c(4) committees for political money that were not widely used by corporations, and the super PACs and c-4 committees were largely ineffective in the 2012 election. They also did not produce a marked advantage for the Republican Party, especially in the presidential election. The Citizens United decision did, however, lead to other legal and regulatory developments in an effort to promote greater disclosure, though those developments have not been successful. Investors have been somewhat more successful in promoting limits on corporate political spending through shareholder proposals. Some state laws and upcoming court cases maylimit other restrictions on political contributions.
78. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Tara L. Ceranic Time for a Tune-Up: Engaged Learning for a New Generation of Business Students
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The Millennial Generation (Gen Y) has grown up with unprecedented access to technology and they view learning and access to information differently than previous generations. These differences mean that there is a need to engage them in new and creative ways in the classroom. This paper offers a variety of pedagogical approaches for Business & Society that are linked specifically to generational differences in order to better address the needs of Gen Y. Responses from student reflections to these changes are discussed, as are limitations and considerations necessary when making any extensive pedagogical shifts.
79. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Jerry M. Calton A De-Centered Stakeholder Network Path to Creating Mutual Value: Is Wal-Mart Showing the Way?
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This paper draws upon recent insights into the emergence of issue-focused stakeholder networks which engage in a co-creative process for constructing mutual value. It applies these insights to evaluate Wal-Mart CEO Lee Scott’s “21st Century Leadership” effort to impose an ethical supply chain control system in China. The paper concludes that further institutional innovation (especially relating to the decentered process of co-creative learning) is needed to realize the potential of 21st century transformational leadership at Wal-Mart and elsewhere.
80. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Aimee Dars Ellis, Duncan Duke, G. Scott Erickson, Marian Brown, Katherine Oertel Town-Gown Partnerships: Experiential Exercises for Education in Social Innovation
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Experiential education produces numerous benefits to students in terms of higher order thinking skills such as the ability to evaluate, analyze, and synthesizeinformation (Illeris, 2007; Ives & Obenchain, 2006; Lidon, Rebollar, & Møller, 2011), engagement (Baker & Comer, 2012), and work-readiness (Jollands, Jolly, & Molyneaux, 2012). Partnering with community organizations provides a means to create experiential education opportunities for students. In this symposium, we discussed three examples of experiential education to promote learning around themes of sustainability, providing a brief outline of the activities, the intended outcomes, and the lessons learned from our experiences. We concluded with a meditation on the importance of working with community partners and managing expectations so that students, the community, and the institutions gain the best possible outcomes when creating town-gown partnerships for sustainability education.