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81. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Bryan W. Husted, José Salazar Pricing Social Externalities: The Case of Income Inequality
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Using the Theil index to measure income inequality, we define a specific firm’s contribution to overall income inequality and propose a simple model to find theequilibrium price for a given target of income inequality reduction. We first establish income inequality reduction targets for a population of firms. We then model a marginal income inequality reduction cost curve and match demand and supply to derive the equilibrium price. Using a small sample of fifteen firms, we simulate a market for income inequality reduction and calculate the equilibrium price.
82. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Jae Hwan Lee, Ronald K. Mitchell “Stakeholder Work” and Stakeholder Research
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As important stakeholder research streams have built their own silos over time, it has become increasingly difficult to visualize a full picture of stakeholder management. To begin to address this gap, we synthesize five distinct stakeholder research streams, which include stakeholder identification, stakeholder understanding, stakeholder awareness, stakeholder prioritization, and stakeholder action. We juxtapose each of these five stakeholder research streams with Scott’s framework consisting of participants, socials structure, environment, technology, and goals of an organization, respectively. What emerges from this analysis of the literature is the notion of “stakeholder work” defined as the purposive processes of an organization aimed at identifying, understanding, being aware of, prioritizing, and acting with respect to stakeholders.
83. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
S. Prakash Sethi, Donald H. Schepers Developing a Framework for Critiquing Multi-Stakeholder Codes of Conduct
84. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Frederik Dahlmann, Stephen Brammer Reducing Carbon Emissions Worldwide: MNCs and Global Environmental Performance
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This paper prepares an investigation into environmental performance among multinational enterprises in the context of greenhouse gas emissions. The authors offer a theoretical background about how MNCs are faced with opposing choices with regard to standardising or adjusting their local environmental performances. Moreover, we outline a potential methodology for exploring the variation in MNCs’ levels of greenhouse gas emissions around the world.
85. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Duane Windsor Authenticity, Greenwashing, and Institutionalization of CSR Best Practices
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This paper explores relationships among authenticity, greenwashing, and institutionalization of best practices for corporate social responsibility (CSR). The issue of authenticity versus greenwashing in CSR and stakeholder engagement practices has become an increasingly important topic of activist debate and scholarly inquiry. This paper identifies some relevant literature, defines authenticity and greenwashing, and seeks to connect the definitional distinction to institutionalization of CSR best practices. Connection involves definition and identification of “best” practices for CSR.
86. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Frederik Dahlmann, Stephen Brammer Corporate Governance vs. Corporate Environmental Governance: Complementary or Separate Drivers of Environmental Performance?
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This paper prepares an investigation into the roles and effectiveness of different types of corporate governance and environmental governance mechanisms in driving improvements in environmental performance. More specifically, the authors provide background theory regarding the way in which different types of traditional corporate governance and new concepts of environmental governance might have an impact on reducing firms’ levels of greenhouse gas emissions intensities. The paper also suggests a method of how this could be empirically tested.
87. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Michael Hadani, Jonathan Doh, Marguerite Schneider An Examination of Corporate and Regulatory Responses to Socially Oriented Investor Activism
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Shareholder activism challenges management control over the corporate status quo. Drawing on reactance theory and recent empirical work on corporate political activity (CPA) and on firms’ response to shareholder activism, and testing using data complied by the Interfaith Center for Corporate Responsibility, the Federal Election Commission and others for S&P 500 firms from 1999-2006, we find evidence that CPA buffers firms from corporate social responsibility-related or socially-oriented shareholder proposals. Greater CPA, particularly greater relational CPA, influences responses of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as well as responses of the targeted firm, to help neutralize socially-oriented shareholder activism.
88. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Sashi Sekhar Employee and Organizational Environmental Values Fit and its Relationship to Sustainability-relevant Attitudes, Commitment and Turnover Intentions
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A model is presented that examines the interactions between employee and organizational values toward the natural environment and its influence on important sustainability-related outcomes. Perspectives from the new environmental paradigm (Catton & Dunlap, 1980; Stern & Dietz, 1994), anthropocentric value orientation (Shrivastava, 1994, 1995; Pursor, Park & Montouri, 1995; Starik & Rands, 1995), behavioral view of HRM (Schuler & Jackson, 1987, 1995), and person-organizational (Chatman; 1989; Kristoff, 1996) are applied. The overall proposition is that level of congruence between employee and company values toward the natural environment influences employee attitudes toward firm green initiatives, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions.
89. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Mark Starik Connecting and Advancing the Social Innovations of Business Sustainability Models
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Numerous business research models or frameworks have been developed to explain, predict, and prescribe the decisions and actions behind changing organizational behaviors to advance sustainability, including sustainability issues related to businesses. The objective of this paper is to recognize that the integration of business sustainability models for the purpose of highlighting the need and prescriptions for more urgent and effective socio-economic and environmental crises resolution is a social innovation that can be encouraged both within and outside of business academics. The scope of the paper is the full set of current and near-future entwined socio-economic and environmental challenges that appear to need to be addressed holistically by entities at the multiple levels of organization (including business), individual/community, and society.
90. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Linda C. Rodriguez, Patsy G. Lewellyn Shared Value Creation through Community Health Initiatives: A Social Innovation
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Should the private sector concern itself with the health of the communities in which it operates? Should the community look to local businesses for collaboration in the effort to elevate the health of its citizens? Is there an opportunity between the public and private sectors to create shared value through the enhancement of public health? These are questions this paper explores and analyzes, using theoretical models that originate in disparate literatures.
91. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Bruce Paton, Caterina Tantalo Changing the Landscape: Battling Information Asymmetries to Accelerate Adoption of CSR Business Practices
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In the absence of credible information and corresponding positive feedback from stakeholders, firms have limited incentive to invest in CSR practices. This paper focuses on the under-exploited potential of initiatives designed to overcome the inhibiting effects of information asymmetries on the adoption of socially responsible behaviors. Mechanisms to address information asymmetries can accelerate the adoption of socially responsible practices by increasing the rewards firms receive for responsible behavior, and raise the cost of retaining less responsible behaviors by making them more visible to interested stakeholders.
92. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Karen Paul Business Cycle Effects on Socially Responsible Investment: Evidence from Two Business Cycles 1991 to 2009
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Socially responsible investing (SRI) is a significant part of the U.S. equity market. Studies of the relationship between social performance and financialperformance have not considered the effect of business cycles, which is the main topic of this study. An SRI Fund of Funds is compared to the S&P 500 over two complete business cycles from 1991 to 2009. The SRI Fund of Funds had financial performance comparable to the S&P 500 during market contractions, but underperformed during market expansions. The factors associated with SRI returns are examined using both the Fama-French 3-Factor Model and the Carhart 4-Factor Model. Momentum appears to be of special importance during market expansions. The implications of these findings for the field of SRI are examined.
93. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Marc-Charles “M-C” Ingerson, Bradley R. Agle, Katie A. Liljenquist Negotiating Ethically: Resilience, Moral Identity, and Power in Negotiations
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Everybody negotiates. But not everybody negotiates ethically. One driver of unethical negotiation behavior is power. Yet, we still haven’t discovered the principalmoderating and mediating influences between power and ethical negotiation behavior. In this pair of experimental studies we’re interested in finding out how resilience and moral identity affect an individual’s ethical behavior in both simple and complex negotiations when primed for power.
94. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
James D. Carlson, Adam D. Bailey, Ronald K. Mitchell Competition and Morality
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We review an argument that proposes two moralities—“everyday” moral norms and “adversarial” moral norms—are required for business contexts. We take issue with an implication of this idea, namely that competitive actions do not need to be in accord with “everyday” moral norms. After showing that the argument for two moralities in business does not succeed, we propose a distinction between two types of competitive actions: principled, those actions which comport with every day morality, and merely self-interested, those actions that do not comport with every day morality. The merits of this distinction are discussed.
95. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Pamala J. Dillon Virtuous CSR: Blending Positive Organizational Scholarship and Social Responsibility
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Theory development surrounding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been ensconced in a rational economic logic, exploring both financial and ethicaljustifications (Basu & Palazzo, 2008; Margolis & Walsh, 2003). Venturing outside of this logic and viewing corporations as organizations from a positive organizational scholarship (POS) perspective provides an opportunity to broaden the exploration of CSR. Within POS, organizations are assumed to be driven by a need to contribute to human flourishing and well-being (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). This viewpoint does not preclude the importance of organizational performance or survival, but rather provides a reorienting perspective to the study of organizations (Margolis & Walsh, 2003). In this paper, the concept of Virtuous CSR is proposed as part of a continuum of CSR theory ranging from strategic to virtuous. Virtuous CSR changes the lens through which organizations and CSR are studied. Specific attributes of Virtuous CSR are proposed.
96. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Steven N. Brenner The Surprise Gift: How IABS’s First International Meeting Came to Be
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This “paper” recalls the events that shaped the first international conference of the International Association for Business and Society. A number of surprises andfortunate circumstances determined the actual nature of our 1992 meeting in Leuven, Belgium. This description provides a brief overview of that conference’s planning and execution.
97. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Christine Husmann Business Opportunities Versus Socialist Heritage: The Role That Business Can Play in Reducing Poverty in Rural Ethiopia
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Against the background of various innovative business approaches developed in the last two decades that aim at directly targeting poor people as producers or consumers, this research looks at the potential of the private sector to contribute to poverty reduction in rural Ethiopia by providing improved seed to poor smallholder farmers. Smallholder productivity is very low and demand for improved seed is higher than supply in Ethiopia. An institutional economics framework is applied to analyze more than 40 expert interviews carried out in Ethiopia with stakeholders of business, government and NGOs. Results suggest that national institutions vitiate incentives for seed producers and cause transaction costs to be very high for Ethiopian seed companies. This hampers private sector development, which causes a lack of improved seed in the country. Institutional reforms are undertaken but are ambiguous in their effect on private sector development.
98. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Jim Weber, Robbin Derry Open Mike: A Forum for Ideas, Concerns, and Questions about Teaching
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As the name indicates, we wanted to provide a forum for new and experienced IABS members to share current challenges and insights about teaching in our field. Within our participant group, many had taught in the field for more than two decades and had shared ideas with each other over these years at previous IABS meetings. We were happy to welcome and learn from several younger scholars as well, who brought their inspiration and enthusiasm to our discussion. There was no conceived or imposed structure for our session, in the true Open Mike format. We did try to follow up each idea and question that was raised with supportive reflections and relevant contributions.
99. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Caddie Putnam Rankin, Harry J. Van Buren III The Professionalization Continuum: The Expanding CSR Function
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In this paper, we investigate the factors that predict professionalization of organizational occupations in order to (1) predict how the CSR function might evolve inways that move it closer to a well-defined profession and (2) assess why moving toward professionalization might make the CSR function more effective within organizations. We use our historical analysis to make research propositions as to which elements of professionalization are most important in promoting ethical behavior. We also discuss whether we believe a path exists for the CSR function to move along the professionalization continuum from less established to well established in ways that promotes the function’s effectiveness.
100. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2014
James Weber, Robbin Derry Open Mike II: A Forum for Ideas, Concerns, Questions about Teaching