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81. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Grzegorz Bugajak On The Notion of Chance and Its Application in Natural Sciences
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The notion of chance plays an important role in some philosophical analyses and interpretations of scientific theories. The most obvious examples of that are the theories of evolution and quantum mechanics. This notion, however seems to be notoriously vague. Its application in such analyses, more often than not refers to its common-sense understanding, which, by definition, cannot be sufficient when it comes to sound philosophical interpretations of scientific achievements. The paper attempts at formulating a ‘typology of chance’. It distinguishes eight different meanings of this notion. Those meanings can be found in classical philosophical accounts of chance, in the common usage of this term, or form logical possibilities of its understanding. Subsequently, the paper points to those forms of the notion in question which may and may not be properly applied to scientific theories and ideas – given usual characteristics of natural sciences. It also shows – by the examples of particular theories mentioned above – which of the distinguished forms of the notion of chance are actually applicable in the context of these theories.
82. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Oue Yasuhiro Ethics for the Life Manipulation Era: Molecular Ethics
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Ethics is a device which is produced by the human consciousness to regulate the human behaviour or society in a sound manner. Organisms are manipulated by techniques of molecular biology these days. Then, it is so difficult to recognize the problems of life manipulation by the ethical principle raised by our sensing level. To regulate the society greatly influenced by modern life sciences, it is time to utilize the mechanistic knowledge about organisms as a basic principle of ethics (Molecular ethics). Molecular ethics is not an ethics produced only by the humane logic, but adopts the property of genome operating system (OS) as a core principle clarified by the molecular biology. It is substantiated by life sciences, but is not a simple scientific decision-making means. It promotes scientific experiments with the integrity to knowledge. Scientific knowledges are projections of the rule of life. Molecular ethics is an ethics which seeks for the rules of evolution; i.e. rules for transcending human being. On the other hand, traditional ethics (individual ethics; ethics based on indivisualism) is an ethics which regards present human being as a terminus of evolution. In this respect, this is against the principle of genome OS (system of evolution). Life sciences and technologies has been developing to meet our wants, however, those activities nowadays seem to be against those rules of genome OS. Therefore, it is extremely important for us to consider the ethics applicable for the life manipulation era.
83. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
B. J. Zeng 结构论: 生物系统泛进化理论
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Modern science developed in the interflow of culture between west and east. Combing of pratice technology with philosophic thoughts formed experimental method. Holistic views contacting atomism produced system theory. System thoughts are applicated in the science and engineering of biosystems, and the cencepts of system biomedicine (Kamada T.1992), systems biology (Zieglgansberger W, Tolle TR.1993), system bioengineering and system genetics (Zeng BJ. 1994) were established. From positive to synthetic thoughts, philosophy have been developed ontology, cosmology, organism theories. Structurity is structure logic system founded on entity, develop, exist axioms, tolerance, adaptation, fluctuate, interweave, transform theorems and integrate, adaptation, construct laws. Structurity be discussed on the cosmos, life, culture system, creation, hologram theories of structure ontology, construct mutation, simi-structure organism and entity emergence, symbol implication. From the relation of structure, function and development, the structurity put forward the cycle, spiral, triangle structure stability patterns of self-organization in structure complement each other and stratification, functional couple and interflow bounds growth, coordinativetransformation and holographic symmetry.
84. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Jee Sun Rhee Poincaré’s Discussion on Mechanism and Principle of Relativity
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Mechanism is a conception of the world according to which all can be explained by mechanics expressed by its fundamental concepts and principles. I’ll firstly show that, following Poincaré’s discussion on mechanical explanation, the very foundation of classical mechanics implicates that all can’t be explained. Next, I’lldiscuss the principles of mechanics as they are viewed by Poincaré, especially the principle of relativity. I’ll show that this principle has a particular feature by its form of “pseudo-universal” argument, as well as by its fundamental role for experiences. It will be finally revealed that, mechanism can be used as a convention, because, by the principle of relativity, we can have only local experiments but these can never be extended to the universe as a whole, and consequently, none of our experiences would lead us to any phenomenon irreducible to mechanics. Nevertheless, it doesn’t exclude the contrary possibility: experiences can reveal that it is not to commode as it used to be, without disapproving it.
85. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
L.A. Minasyan Newest Cosmology and Philosophy
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Analytical reflections on tasks and functions of philosophy in the modern world, as well as, efforts deriving novel vision of practically all areas of the philosophical thought may become sound only after consideration of the innovations with which modern natural science has crossed the 20—21 centuries boundary. Discoveries in astrophysics at the end of the 20th century offer new and unprecedented perceptions of our world. In this world only 4% of the total Universe energy is attributed to the known forms of the matter, 20% constitutes “dark matter” and 76% is in “dark energy”. The first decade of the 21st century will go on record inhistory of the civilization as the one associated with breakthrough experiments shedding light on the nature of the mysterious types of the matter, and construction of the unified theory of field. It is safe to regard modern science to be on the verge of profound transformations. These changes are bound to alter our outside world comprehension, redefining human being’s place in it. That advances a set of new serious requirements to philosophy as a science that must present ability to adapt to provide adequate and meaningful methodological interpretations to anticipated discoveries. This article addresses the characteristic features of modern conceptual knowledge of the world, with an attempt of offering their philosophical and methodological comprehension.
86. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Arkadiy Lipkin "Object Theoretic-Operational" View of Physical Knowledge
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The "object theoretic operational view" suggests a new structure of physical knowledge. This view takes branches of physics as basic units. Its main concepts are primary (PIO) and secondary (SIO) ideal objects with the explicit definition of SIO through PIO and the implicit definition of PIOs within appropriate systems of statements, called a "nucleus of a branch of physics" (NBP). Within an NBP (which has a definite structure) the focus shifts from discovering "laws of nature" to definition of a physical object (system) and its states, and the distinct notion "measurable" replaces the vague notion "observable". On this basis the roles of physical models and measurements within physics, as well as two types (PIO- and SIO- type) of theories, activity, and experiment are discussed, and a different junction of "realism” and "constructivism" is presented.
87. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Ilkka Niiniluoto Unification and Abductive Confirmation
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According to the traditional requirement, formulated already by William Whewell in his account of the “consilience of inductions” in 1840, an explanatory scientific theory should be independently testable by new kinds of phenomena. A good theory should have unifying power in the sense that it explains and predicts several mutually independent phenomena. This paper studies the prospects of Bayesianism to motivate this kind of unification criterion for abductive confirmation.
88. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Masaki Hrada Revision of Phenomenology for Mathematical Physics
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Fundamental notions Husserl introduced in Ideen I, such as epochè, reality, and empty X as substrate, might be useful for elucidating how mathematical physics concepts are produced. However, this is obscured in the context of Husserl’s phenomenology itself. For this possibility, the author modifies Husserl’s fundamental notions introduced for pure phenomenology, which found all sciences on the absolute Ego. Subsequently, the author displaces Husserl's phenomenological notions toward the notions operating inside scientific activities themselves and shows this using a case study of the construction of noncommutative geometry. The perspective in Ideen I about geometry and mathematical physics includes points that are inappropriate to modern geometry and to modern physics, especially to noncommutative geometry and to quantum physics. The first point relates to the intuitive character of geometrical objects in Husserl. The second is linked to the notion of locality related to the notion of extension, by which Husserl characterizes the essence of physical things. The points show that the notion of empty X as a substrate, developed in “Phenomenology of Reason” in Ideen I, is helpful for considering the notions of physical reality and of geometrical space, especially reality in quantum physics and space in noncommutative geometry. The salient conclusions include the proposition that aphilosophical study of the relationship between the physical object X, which imparts a unity to what is given to sensibility, and the geometrical space X, which imparts a unity of sense to various mathematical operations, opens a reinterpretation of Husserl’s interpretation, supporting an epistemology of mathematical physics.
89. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Tian-en Wang Outline of Micro-Epistemology: A Descriptive Approach
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This paper is an outline of micro-epistemology as a philosophical reflection of "quantum wealth" as well as an anthropological analysis of the nature of human cognition in the scale of quantum. It covers the problems of the observation in and the trueness of micro-cognition, the perception of quantum phenomena, the relations between micro-cognition and practice as well as between macro-subject and micro-object, the descriptive turn in micro-cognition, the description of micro-world and some special descriptive problems in micro-cognition, etc. Micro-cognition, just as quantum theory shows, relates to a scale out of ordinary for human being. Quantum theory means a farther clarification of the background of human person’s existence and the human-world relation. It means anenormous extending of the framework of scientific theory, and thereby the rebuilding of the foundation of philosophy. It also means the refining and the rationalization of our conceptual tools and, in a certain extent, the reconstruction of the foundation of epistemology.
90. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Wang Guozheng Nature Science and “Three Changes”
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Once Zheng Xuan, a man of Han dynasty, made notations of “Yiwei”, he said: “The word ‘change’ contains three meanings: the first is simplifying, the second is transformation, and the third is unchanging ”, thus called to “three changes”. The wording “three changes” is able to be the different explanations of “Zhouyi”, and also can be understand to three meanings of the word “change” in “Zhouyi”. Everywhere in the nature, and in nature science, there are incalculable examples about “three changes”. The process of “simplifying”, it is that nature science obtains the principles by means of summing up the multitudinous complex spontaneous phenomena. There is “the fundamental of thinking economy”, and “Aucum razor” in the west, then they emphasize to wipe off the miscellaneous and keep up the simple, and to eliminate the false and retain the true. Therefore, it can say where there is no “simplifying”, there is no nature science. “Transformation” means movement and change. This is the essentiality of the nature. From the biggest such as the universe to the smallest such as cells, all these are the outcomes of evolution, and are changing continueously. Physics researching from static objects to dynamic objects, and mathematics calculation from the constant to the variable, all of these studies are closing up to the essentiality of the natural “transformation” nearer and nearer. If there is no “transformation”, nature science world stop, and the nature world be deathly stillness. “Unchanging” means that the static state exists in the dynamic state, and the constant exists in the variation. The various theorems and laws, such as the theorem of constant of light velocity and the law of conservation of energy, are the summation and accumulation of the regularities of which the relative stabilization is kept in changeable movement. Various kinds of equation are all linked by equal-sign, and based on the condition recognizing which the two sides is equal constantly. Therefore the calculation of the relations between matter characteristics can be set up. Otherwise, not only the nature world be disorder and unsystematic, but also the science world have no laws to go by.
91. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
V.V. Kazjutinsky Epistemological Aspects of Global Evolutionism (Big History)
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The author examines epistemological aspects of global evolutionism (Big history) concept which is getting a more and more essential subject in the science of the XXIst century. This concept inserts human history into the holistic evolution process of the Universe. The paper deals with the analysis of the global evolutionism concept, subject-object relations in the investigation realm, the problem of a language choice for global evolutionism description, as well as Big history modern knowledge, including its validity criteria.
92. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Igor Nevvazhay The Problem of a Final Theory in Physics
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The problem of a final theory concern prospects of the contemporary science development. Arguments the adherents and opponents of the final theory idea appeal to philosophical and methodological beliefs. In my paper I am going, firstly, to analyze critically philosophical ideas lying on the basis of denying of the final theory project, and, secondly, to show that defense of that project demands reconsideration beliefs about a structure of a scientific theory and discussion a meaning of scientific laws.
93. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Ruey-Lin Chen Reconsidering Experimental Realism
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This paper discusses Hacking’s experimental realism and suggests a concept of realization to the issue about realism. I first rephrase Hacking’s experimental realism by reconstructing them into two theses and three arguments. Then I consider that Resnik’s objection to Hacking’s experimental realism. According to my understanding of Hacking’s experimental realism, Resnik’s objection failed because of his position at theory realism. Nevertheless, I think that there are still two problems about the experimental aspect of the experimental realism. They are the pessimistic induction of experimental science argument and the combination of apparatus argument. I attempt to give a new perspective on the realism issue by proposing a set of related concepts containing categorization, model, and realization. Last, I show that this conceptual scheme can give a better solution of the two problems and cast a new light on the realism issue.
94. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Mamchur Elena Should the Role of Epistemology in Studying Scientific Knowledge be Rethought?
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The paper analyzes the role of epistemology in contemporary science study. According to the representatives of cultural approach to scientific cognition the latter should be considered regardless of the issues of falsity or truth, which excludes epistemology from the sphere of science investigation. The paper argues, that though the inquiry of science as an aspect of human culture is quite possible, this sort of analysis is insufficient. In order to understand the nature of scientific cognition one has to supplement it by the results of epistemological consideration.
95. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Joonsung Kim Against the Monolithic Way of Explicating Causation: The Insufficiency of the Mechanism Theory of Causation
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Glennan (2002) argues for the mechanism theory of causation that it explicates both type-level and token-level causation in terms of mechanism. I argue against the mechanism theory that it is not sufficient for explicating cause-effect relations at the token-level. I put forth two counterexamples (first, absence of causes and second, a cause preempting another cause) to the theory, and show that descriptions of a mechanism are inert in explicating cause-effect relations at the token level. I point out that the problems with the mechanism theory are due to explicating cause-effect relation in monolithic ways.
96. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Золотых Елена Борисовна Стрела времени и прогноз в геологических науках
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Times Arrow existence is well illustrated by geology and other sciences such as geography, biology and chemistry. But investigator of geological reality has same hardness and contradiction which unknown for specialists in other sciences. Times Arrow appearance is condition by interaction Earth’s structural heterogeneity substance (dimensions from nx10^-6 m to nx10^7 m) with processes its transformations. Each degree of Heterogeneity substance of Earth is learning with methods of specialty geological sciences. Heterogeneity substance of Earth degree stays more and more and there fore the system “forgets” its past that causes every geological object is uncial. No any geological process could go backwards to his beginning. The time geological process is incommensurable with the time of humanity civilization. Every geological process indicated by great number causes, and there fore we never could know everything about these processes and these causes. Geological science is historical knowledge by the method because of the uncial character geological objects. The influence uncial objects to itch other could not prognosticate and there is no one ontology, but poly-ontology these objects. In this case the investigator can observe only results of geological processes, not there proceed. Prognosis in geological sciences is not prognosis non-existent events. Usually prognosis in geological sciences is prediction about latent properties already existing geological object, but unexplored or inaccessible to specialists.
97. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Sun Kyeong Yu Who’s Afraid of Gory Details?
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Philip Kitcher’s ‘gory detail’ argument aims to prove that molecular biology does not always have an explanatory primacy over higher-level functional biology. Explanations of higher-level biological discipline – functional biology – are completely adequate for explaining higher-level biological phenomena, and none of the gory molecular details of biological processes improve our understanding of these biological facts. I dispute Kitcher’s arguments by pointing out three problems embedded in his accounts. First, his view of molecular biology does not aptly reflect the nature of molecular biology that continuously provides richer and richer causal explanations about biological phenomena as well as information on their molecular level. Second, having this feature, molecular biology canhardly be deemed explanatorily irrelevant in explaining higher-level biological facts. Nor are explanations of molecular biology unexplainable. Third, functional biology fails to offer accurate and complete explanations about biological phenomena that are caused by the changes occurring at the molecular level. Functional biology does not remain stable in its ability to provide reliable explanations and thus loses its explanatory primacy to molecular biology. After all, molecular biology generates precise explanations of biological phenomena with reliable predictive power.
98. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Stanislav Bondarenko The Principles of the Scientific Description
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Scientists need that scientific descriptions meet request methodological principles. Science knowledge is independent. Methodological principles guarantee autonomic regime of scientific investigations. Methodological principles are requirements the process of descriptive knowledge receiving as result of methodological analysis on best samples of scientific investigations, or methodological standards in history of science. There are mane principles in methodology of science: autonomic scientific investigation, competence, objectivity, expedience, systemness, verification, coherence, unity of methods, integration, differentiation, many-variation of formulizations, modernizations, diversity of chosen types of descriptions, two logical meanings – truthfulness and falseness.
99. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Е.Р. Карташова Биос, как подсистема планеты Земля
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Life on our planet is a global ensemble termed bios. We emphasize that bios and the Earth per se form an integral system that behaves as a single coherent object. This idea is strongly supported by our knowledge of the organization of bios and its evolution on the geological time scale. This article considers interactions between the Earth, a self-organizing system, and bios, its subsystem, in ontological terms. Both systems are open. They are characterized by non-linear processes.
100. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Sesegma Zhimbeeva Ethic of Surrounding Environment
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Explanation of the reason of ecological crisis – a key to development of a valuable paradigm new to the western mentality. The western variant of development has led to accident of self-destruction of the person or its exit on autotrophic stay out of the Earth. The dream cosmists (Tsiolkovsky, Vernadsky, Teilhard de Chardin, etc.) is half carried out, say, in connection with an exit racketeers in space. In traditional culture this exit was always: «Dao», the Buddhism, and shamanism. In traditional culture the relation to an inhabitancy was regulated always by the developed system of a taboo and the restrictions producing internalinterfacing space unities. Time puts a problem of judgement of this unity for an exit from environmental problems.