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81. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Alec Gordon Area Studies, Planetary Thinking, and Philosophical Anthropology
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The aim of this paper is to consider the vicissitudes of “area studies” from the Second World War to the present focusing eventually on the normative imperative to develop a new paradigm of “planetary thinking.” First an overview of the history of “area studies” will be given from the start in the U.S. during the Second World War in response to the geostrategic imperative for America to know its new geopolitical responsibilities in a world divided by war. This security imperativemorphed into the postwar requisite to develop a counterhegemonic strategy against soviet communism in the hot spot parts of Asia, Latin American, and later Africa. The latter military-oriented strategy was added to with research into development and modernization in the third-world through to the boundary displacement of areas studies at the end of the Cold War into the current era of globalization. At this very historical moment of transition a new rationale for area studies emerged in the form of a geoeconomic imperative – both in the U.S. and, with a different gloss, in South Korea in the late 1990s. Second, on the basis of this historical apercu, the argument will be proposed that, given the problem of global warming and the issue-area of global inequality lurking behind the UnitedNation’s Millennium Development Goals, a pressing contemporary task for philosophy is to make a critical contribution to developing a new planetary perspective for area studies informed by a constitutive philosophical anthropology attendant to the species being of human beings.
82. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Andrés Luis Jaume Rodríguez The Sources of Normativity in the Biological Functions
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I present an outline of a normative and non selectionist theory capable of ascribing functional statements to biological items. Biological items are ussually exemplified by the organs as well as traits or behaviours. But we can consider representations too. In fact, my proposal is focused towards a teleosemantical theory of mental content. The teleosemantic approach explains the content of beliefs in terms of the biological functions of those states. Usually, teleosemantical theories of mental representation either ellaborate previously a general theory of functions for biological items, this is the case for Millikan, Neander or Price, orassume a previous selectionist one, as Papineau does. But these proposals are frequently adaptationist in order to keep normatitvity in whatever functional adscription. The recent contributions to the state of the art show the problems of this kind of selectionist view. But they don’t consider the problem of normativity in functional adscriptions. And this problem become important when we pay attention to mental representations as biological facts. I propose an outline of a nonselectionist nor adaptationist account of biological functions capable of keeping normativity. My account is suitable to biological traits, in general, and mental representations characterized in terms of biological functions.
83. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Anna Latawiec The Essence of Life in Context of Biological Information
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The main purpose of the paper is to justify the thesis that the presence of biological information is conditional for existence and persistence of life. We will begin with the notion of biological information. In this proposition information is identified with impact, and it is shown the dependence of its location and functioning on the level of organization of animate matter. In accordance with a suggestion of Thomas Aquinas, it seems that precisely information is the reason for the appearance of socalled immanent activities where new life appears.
84. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
S. M. Vovk Nonlinear Paradigm in Multivariate-Integral World Perception and World View
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Within the scope of multifactor approach, the ways and peculiarities of nonlinear paradigm formation and its establishment, as well as, multidimensional nature and essence of things in a single research field of the interdisciplinary science that is directly based on the perception of multidimensional integrity of the real world were significantly reconsidered. The idea of multifactorness is deployed as the scientific and logical basis for the methodology of scientific and philosophical research. In the course of investigation, it was revealed that the contemporary level of understanding the notional diversity of "multidimensionality" concentrates within the conceptual structures of nonlinear thinking style considering the principle of oriental world-perception and world-understanding.
85. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Krishna Prakash Tripathi Indian Cosmology: A Scientific Analysis
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Cosmology is defined as the science of the large-scale structure of the universe. Indian cosmology is a philosophical theory regarding the cycle of creation from supreme consciousness to matter and from matter to supreme consciousness. It deals with the creation of the cosmic mind and the microvita, and origin-evolution-future of matter, individual mind and life. There is important input from Vedic and Tantric traditions. This school follows subjective approach by dealing with absolute (spiritual) as well as relative (psycho-physical) knowledge of the universe. The scientific cosmology is a developing multi-disciplinary science regarding origin-evolution-future of matter and life. This science follows objective approach by dealing with physical knowledge of the universe. The paper will focus on scientific analysis of the basic concepts of Indian cosmology.
86. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Andrei Babaitsev The Semantics of Political Symbols
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With the use symbols by political subjects arises the problem of their understanding. Groups of symbols can be created in such a way to contain a message. The state coat of arms is a political symbol, in which is concentrated a number of meanings and significance. The coat of arms — it is a symbol garnished with colossal endless meaning and potential withing its power. Besides this, the state coat of arms appears in numbers like mandalas: it is like this archaic symbol, that combines various geometric shapes expressing the idea of order. The state coat of arms perceptively unites people of different genders, ages, social status andfaith into a united orderly community. A person contemplating the state coat of arms understands it as the center of the universe. The coat of arms is transformed into endlessness, attaining the result of uniting the macrocosm — society and state — and with the macrocosm — man. The function of political symbols exists so as to represent the “body” of a concrete political subject or society as a whole, at the same time in every part of a text “is highlighted” yet another part of the endless semantical richness of the symbol. Political symbols have important significance for the support or destruction of socio-political order. But the chief essence ofpolitical symbols — is the ability to give meaning to all political activities, and the regular “exposition” of state symbols guarantees the stability of the existing socio-political system.
87. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Susanne Lettow The Cultural Embodiment of Biology: Naturphilosophie and Biological Knowledge Around 1800
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Biology, established around 1800 as the “science of life,” has developed as not only a specific scientific discipline but it has also continually served as a kind of social knowledge. Biological knowledge supported the modern order of the sexes and the two-sex model that it was structured along, as well as modern racism and multiple forms of social inequality articulated by dichotomizing the normal and abnormal. However, the fledgling discipline of biology alone was not capable of developing the epistemological as well as political-ethical competence necessary for attaining this central status in the order of knowledge; it was possible only because philosophy and the emerging social sciences gave biology a specific status. The paper outlines the closely connected, but different attitudes of Kant and Schelling towards biological knowledge. While focusing on their different epistemic strategies towards the new form of nature knowledge, I also point to their different political-ethical articulations of biological knowledge. I conclude that a critical analysis of philosophies of nature around 1800 contributes not onlyto an understanding of the symbolic power of biology in the modern order of knowledge but also to rethinking philosophy’s relation to scientific knowledge today.
88. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Hugh P. McDonald Does Nature Exist? Towards a Critique of Nature and Naturalism
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To bring our topic within manageable limits, the attempt will be made to approach the philosophy of nature in a systematic manner. Borrowing the quantitative categories of one, some and all, nature will be treated as first as singular, then a whole or totality and finally discussed in terms of various distinctions which set nature apart as a part. Past philosophic treatments will be discussed when germane to this treatment, as an example of a particular view of nature. I will argue that nature is not a per se being, cannot be singular or the whole and that the various distinctions that separate the natural from other—the artificial, theconventional, etc.—are inadequate.
89. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Nicolae Branzea A Conceptual Pattern for the “Historical Being” Communication
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Lucian Blaga (1895-1961), the famous Romanian philosopher who started as a poet and took his PhD in Philosophy and Biology in Vienna is our contemporary, illustrating the spiritual changes at the borders between modernism and postmodernism; he is meant to be studied from the perspective of the postmodernist philosophy of religion. Lucian Blaga was a writer, playwright, journalist, professor and librarian who had a vaste writing; as a philosopher he is a unique author of philosophical system, in the Romanian philosophy where his “deconstructionism” is the fact that Blaga “deconstructs” Rigveda by the analysis of the word brahman, specifying that because of the mentality about the sacrificer as a being and God at the same time, the vedic believer “takes courage” towards the deities, loses humility, gaining in return “boldness towards gods”.
90. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Douglas Allen Mircea Eliade’s Challenge to Contemporary Philosophy
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Mircea Eliade, often described by scholars and in the popular press as the world's most influential scholar of religion, symbolism, and myth, was trained as a philosopher, received his Ph.D. in philosophy, and taught in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Bucharest in the 1930s. Although he became a historian and phenomenologist of religion within the field of religious studies, his approach, methodology, and analysis are informed by philosophical assumptions and philosophical normative judgments. In several of his writings, he goes far beyond the history and phenomenology of religion and presents a strong critique of contemporary Western philosophy as part of his larger critique of contemporary Western culture. He submits that contemporary philosophy,as a development of the Enlightenment, claims to be universal, but is in fact ethnocentric and provincial; claims to be innovative and creative, but is in fact increasingly trivial, insignificant, and uncreative. Eliade repeatedly charges that contemporary philosophy is bankrupt and desperately in need of renewal. I shall provide his philosophical critique of dominant Western philosophy, his analysis of self-other encounters, and his alternatives for philosophical renewal through the emerging confrontations, engagements, and creative dialogues between Asian, other non-Western, and Western philosophical perspectives.
91. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Tommi Lehtonen Implicaturism: A pragmatic view on existential claims in religion
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In this paper, I will introduce and argue for a new view on religious faith and language, a view that focuses on the use and context of use of religious expressions. I call this view implicaturism. As one may guess, ‘implicaturism’ comes from ‘implicature’, a term coined by Paul Grice. For Grice, implicature is a technical term for certain kinds of inferences that are drawn from statements without those inferences being logical implications or entailments. In the view of religious faith and language, implicaturism denotes the claims about the existence of God or other supernatural beings as pragmatic conclusions of the expressions used in religious practice, not the ground or presupposition of religious practice. In other words, in religious context, the claims of the form “X exists” (e.g. “God exists”) or “there are Xs” (e.g. “There are angeles”) are inferences that are based on prayers and worship expressions and their relatedbackground assumptions. This pattern of reasoning is not deductive, but abductive, thus inference from consequences to a possible cause. This kind of inference is logically invalid, in that the conclusion “God exists” is not a logical consequence of the premises: the religious expressions. The existential claims in religion (”God exists” or “There are angels” as examples) are thus some sort of a posteriori reasons or explanations for religious behaviour and related expressions, not their prior presuppositions.
92. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Robin Attfield Creation and Evolution
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It is not inconsistent to believe in both creation and in Darwinian evolution at the same time as rejecting creationism, and endorsing a realist stance about religious and scientific language. Belief in creation is argued to be every bit as defensible as Darwinism, and reconcilable with phenomena such as predation. If (as Richard Dawkins holds) evolution is the only possible pathway to life as we know it, then a life-loving creator would select this pathway. If it is not the only possible pathway, the alternatives could well preclude the conditions of freedom among creatures, and if so, then evolution remains the pathway that a life‐lovingand freedom-loving creator would select. Evolution, however, can be argued to be more than a pathway, because of the intrinsic value of the flourishing lives (nonhuman as well as human) that emerge at every stage, and this intrinsic value supplies a further ground for belief in creation. (These are among the conclusions of my recent book, Creation, Evolution and Meaning, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.)
93. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Timoschuk Alexey Unity and Diversity Principle in Jagannatha’s Worship
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Xenophanes claimed that God is a ball, which means that he is a perfect body. This idea is well developed in Jagannatha worship, who is a central Deity in Orissa, India. It’s a round form of Krishna, who is usually depicted in a human like form. Jagannatha, his brother Baladeva and sister Subhadra are justified as round forms because of their specific manifestation of ecstasy, that, according to aesthetical theory (rasa tattva) happened to them. Yet there are many other explanations of the Jagannatha’s roundness. Round form personifies unity and diversity principle in Jagannatha worship, whose image was dear in Orissa duringlong historical period to different religious groups: Vaishnavas, Shaivaites, Jains, Buddhists and even some Muslims. Orissa also has a blending of different cultures, sub-cultures and traditions. Even now, it has 62 distinct tribal groups, that makes a largest collection of diverse tribes in a single state. As the legend goes, Jagannatha made His first appearance in the tribe of Savaras thousands of years ago. Up until now, there are cooks in the Jagannatha kitchen that are called sauviras. In worship of Jagannatha we find the model of axiological globalism, when the difference in the vision of the reality does not obscure the interior mood of wholeness, unity.
94. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Stefan Vlahov-Micov Religion as an Alternative of the Contemporary Chaos
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The report reasons over the role of the religion in the course of the historic development of the so called “homo sapiens” and in the context of his aspirations to a world community which parallely went along both in secular and in religious aspect. It analyses the common features and differences between the world religions and world empires underlining that the world religions were the closest ones to materializing the dream about community of mankind due to the fact that they contain the thorough models of human behaviour.This report underlines that at the contemporary degradation of values and institutions and with the increasing state of world chaos, the religion restores its positions. As a symbol of common cognition of the world, philosophy is able to give meaning not only to the alternatives of the chaos, but to the contemporary role of the religion for establishing new thorough orientation of the contemporary mankind.
95. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Mehmet Önal The Place of Wisdom In the Philosophy of Religion
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In this paper, I will try to make clear that aspect of wisdom which relates to the practical application of revealed commands through prophetic practices and traditions of the other founders of religions. Here, I also refer to the wisdom in the Qur’an and the Old and New Testaments of the Bible as examples of the use of this concept in religion. Although both philosophy and religion require using the form of wisdom within a holistic approach, in the course of time the concept of wisdom was neglected both in philosophy and religion. Because of this, after that one cannot judge the evaluation of complex situations in these two areas.Shortly, in this paper, I am going to discuss the place of wisdom in the Philosophy of Religion as a dynamic factor of thought and then propose a new understanding in the Philosophy of Religion because today this discipline is not fully appreciated by all the world religions.
96. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Raj Sampath Ecstatic Historical Time and the Eclipse of Christianity in Heidegger’s “Hegel and the Greeks”
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In the 1958 lecture, “Hegel and the Greeks,” how does Heidegger intimate a complex sense of historical temporalization when he suggests that the ‘whole of philosophy in its history’ is contained in the title: “Hegel and the Greeks?” Our hypothesis may appear contrarian to contemporary assumptions: a complex notion of origin as paradoxically ‘futural’— particularly in its metaphysical breadth in say the Phenomenology of Spirit and the Science of Logic—is also at work in Heidegger’s thought. This is particularly acute when Heidegger examines the origin of philosophy in ancient Greek thought as a space that opens a future horizon of Being to dawn—that is, some calling that comes from the unforeseeable future to transcend what Heidegger sees as the end, finality, and ‘collapse’ ofphilosophy after Hegel.
97. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Joungbin Lim Dualism, Physicalism, and the Passion of the Christ
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My project in this paper is to provide a plausible idea of Christ’s suffering and death in terms of two theories of the human person. One is dualism. Dualism is the view that a human person is composed of two substances, that is, a soul and a body, and he (strictly speaking) is identical with the soul. On the other hand, physicalism is the view that a human person is numerically identical with his body. I will argue that dualism is not successful in explaining Christ’s passion for some reasons. Rather, physicalism, as I shall argue, provides a better explanation of how Christ’s physical suffering and death are real just like everyone else’s, so it is philosophically and theologically more plausible than dualism.
98. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Dr. B.V.S. Bhanusree Bhakti Marga of Sant Kabir
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Bhakti marga is one of the three important paths of attaining spiritual advancement. The concept is as old as Vedas, developed and elaborated periodically and gradually. In the medieval India ‘Bhakti’ was spread all over the country through Sant Kabir. This paper aims at describing the concept of Bhakti according to Sant Kabir. The essence of Bhakti is love; the best and appropriate method to unite man with God. It is very subtle in nature. Inculcating love in one’s own heart is a challenging task. Bhakti marga is not a velvet path, though it sounds so sweet. It’s a heroic path. One needs to be desperate enough to follow this path. A passive, timid and lazy person can never attain the great gift of love. In the great adventure of uniting the soul with God, mind plays the role of villain, creating obstacles at every step. Man must be skillful enough in removing those obstacles. Keeping the constant company of true people helps man to strengthen his vision and aim. The need of the Guru (spiritual adept) is insisted in this great endeavour. But, one must be careful enough in choosing a real Guru. Love towards God cultivates love towards fellow beings, which is very much needed in this unfriendly, in secured and ruthless world. It is in the hands of man to choose either to follow the path of love or the world of war.
99. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Jitendra Sarker Yata Mat Tata Path: An Ecological Approach to Religions
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‘Yata mat tata path’ means ‘every faith is a path to God’. It is such a generous religious doctrine that has admitted the truth of all religions. This doctrine emerges on the soil of India in the second half of the Nineteenth Century as a reaction against the notion that my religion is the only true religion and other religions are false. According to Sri Ramkrishna, the exponent of the dictum, such dogmatic assertions promote contemptuous attitude towards the followers of other religions,which gives birth to violent strife and bloodshed on earth. All these can generally be considered as the side effects of religions. The aim of this paper is to interpret the importance of the doctrine, yata mat tata path as the antidote of the side effects of religions. The interpretation at the end explicitly exposes itself as an ecological approach to religions. By admitting the truth and spiritual achievements of all religions in spite of their ritualistic diversity, the doctrine yata mat tata path advocates for religious harmony and thus approximates ecology, which discovers interdependent co-existence of and unity in diversified biotic communities.
100. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Shin Ahn Rethinking Mircea Eliade’s Philosophical Foundations: Continuities between His Life and Thought
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This paper examines philosophical foundations of Mircea Eliade's creative hermeneutics. Analyzing his concept of “terror of history” and autobiography, I will argue that his philosophy of religion is useful for Korean scholars to recognize the meaning of Korean religions, which have been overlooked by Western scholars of religions. Paying attention to the continuities between his life and thought, I will explain Eliade’s “primitive ontology” and defend recent criticisms of his method and theory. His views on “new humanism” and “cosmic religion” are also included in the paper.