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1. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Mark S. Schwartz, David Saiia Should Firms Go ‘Beyond Profits’? Milton Friedman Versus Broad CSR
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The paper explores the ongoing debate between the narrow version of CSR proposed by Milton Friedman and the broader version of CSR, which includes additional ethical and/or philanthropic obligations. Implications are then discussed.
2. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Bilge Uyan-Atay Corporate Community Involvement: Organizational Forms and the Areas That Have Invested in Turkey
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Prior research has tended to focus on the influences upon how much organizations contribute to charitable or community cases paying relatively little attentionto the recipients of these donations or how firms develop preferences in respect of them. This study, in order to fill these gaps in the literature, focuses on two main aspects of CCI within 500 biggest companies situated in Turkey. Firstly, it aims to explore how companies manage their CCI activities. The type and level of the managers who are the decision makers and the departments from which CCI decisions are taken will be examined. This helps to understand the potential objectives and strategic importance of giving. Also it shows whether a firm has a stable orientation to CCI, or a more ad hoc orientation. Secondly, it aims to analyze the preferences of companies in respect of the area of priorities and exclusions. We argue that institutional environments can shape the CCI activities. Exploring the local conditions of the countries can give reasons for investment in specific areas.
3. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Gerald W. McLaughlin, Josetta S. McLaughlin Assessing the Construct Validity of the Global 100 Sustainability Ranking for Schools of Business
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Colleges of business rankings purport to address relative performance on programs such as sustainability. The primary criticism of rankings is that providers have not established reliability or validity of the ranking. This study examines whether The Global 100 sustainability ranking is sufficiently unique to claim that it is based on attributes not used for non-sustainability ranking (divergent validity) and whether it is appropriately related to independent characteristics expected to measure this attribute (convergent validity).
4. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Kathleen Rehbein, Frank G.A. de Bakker, Patrick Bernhagen, Andrew Crane Corporate Political Activity and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Workshop Report
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This paper contains a short outline of the rationale behind a workshop aimed at seeking connections between corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity. Two ‘provocateurs’ gave their view on these connections. After this kick-off two groups of ~10 persons each engaged in lively discussions on these connections, identifying a range of issues for further research and an interest in keeping this issue on the agenda.
5. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Terry B. Porter, Patti C. Miles The CSR Halo: Evidence from Long-Term CSR Practices in Large Corporations
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Multiple pressures are today propelling the private sector towards corporate social responsibility (CSR) without detracting from the firm’s competitive advantage,profitability, and hence, its own sustainability. Achieving credible CSR is often a longterm process, taking years to fully develop, institute, and pay off financially, yet current research is limited by its ambiguity and methodological inconsistencies, and by the short time horizon of many studies. This paper responds to this gap by developing and testing a multifaceted, long-term model of firm sustainability practices. The dataset we develop spans ten years, which to our knowledge is the first time such a cumulative long-term view has become possible in the study of CSR actions. Our findings reveal a number of significant relationships which together suggest the existence of a long-term “halo” effect in CSR-committed companies, whereby responsible behavior in the CSR arena is positively associated with other positive aspects of firm operations, including financial performance and a lack of evidence of “greenwashing.”
6. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Aimee Dars Ellis Engaging in Social Action at Work
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Many organizations are utilizing corporate social responsibility initiatives that require employee participation. These initiatives, which involve social action at work (SAW), can be a source of reputational gains, benefit the community, and increase employee organizational identification (Ellis, 2009). Although research has been conducted on employee volunteer programs (EVP), one aspect of SAW, those studies have not identified the characteristics of employees who are most likely to participate in EVP nor have they considered the wide range of SAW programs. In the field of Sociology, extensive research has been conducted to identify characteristics of volunteers, but these volunteer programs are outside the context of CSR initiatives. This research addresses this gap by identifying the characteristics of those who engage in SAW across a wide range of activities. The results of the study can help hone future research questions and aid practitioners in developing and marketing SAW programs that resonate with employees and maximize participation for the good of the employees, organization, and community as a whole.
7. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
David Jacobs, Robbin Derry Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Policy in the Disunited States of America
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This essay re-examines and challenges the conventional wisdom regarding American laissez-faire capitalism, illuminates the extent of government activism and the currents of social democracy, and underscores the significance of the federal structure of the United States political system. We propose Critical Institutionalism to facilitate understanding of the complex, dynamic and contested nature of our political economy.
8. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Karen Paul, Abdul Beydoun A Stakeholder Approach to Investor Preference: The Significance of Demographic and Psychological Factors
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This study tests the relationship between demographic and psychological variables, particularly positive psychology, and investor preferences. Of thedemographics variables, only gender was related to investor preferences, with women expressing a longer time horizon than men. However, the positive psychology variables of hope and novelty orientation were strongly related to risk tolerance, time horizon, and estate intentions.
9. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Christel Dumas, Céline Louche Mimetic Proceses in Responsible Investment Mainstreaming
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In this paper, we compare and contrast institutional theory and convention theory on the concept of mimetism, suggesting how they can cross-pollinate each other and more specifically how the self-referential quality of collective beliefs improves the understanding of mimetic isomorphism. We test this proposition with the case of responsible investment’s mainstreaming.First level results decompose the history of RI into five successive periods. A content analysis of articles on RI in the financial press leads to second level results consisting in a number of salient representations of RI, which we consider to be the dominant conventions. The data is structured using a bracketing strategy, which allows a longitudinal analysis of conventions and their evolution over the five RI periods.
10. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Anne Barraquier The Influence of Social and Ethical Issues on Innovation: An Exploration of the Innovation “Black Box” Processes
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Previous research has been looking for evidence of a correlation between social performance and financial performance. This paper suggests that social issues bring new knowledge within the processes of the organization, a knowledge that is integrated in the innovation process. An empirical study conducted in the flavor and fragrance industry demonstrates that social and ethical issues translate into data and knowledge through four processes: knowledge flows, social exchange, experiential learning and collaborative dynamics. These results are analyzed and briefly discussed.
11. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Mercy Berman, Jeanne M. Logsdon Business Obligations for Human Rights: Any Progress from Rhetoric to Practice?
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While it is generally assumed that large corporations today give rhetorical support for basic human rights in public relations documents, skepticism continues toarise about the behavior of these firms. Do company actions support their rhetoric? This paper provides the initial analysis of our study of both rhetoric and practice regarding human rights in a small sample of large U.S. firms. At this point in the analysis, UNGC membership does not appear to have much influence on corporate rhetoric, but may be partially correlated with several measures of corporate performance on human rights issues.
12. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Judith Schrempf, Guido Palazzo How to Create the Ethical Consumer
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Consumer surveys confirm two facts: First, consumers are aware of social and ethical side effects of production and consumption. Second, consumers indicate an intention to adapt their consumption behavior. Despite their willingness to change, consumers do not engage in ethical consumption behavior. We assert that the ethical consumer needs to be created and propose two mechanisms how corporations can cocreate the ethical consumer: Influencing external institutional factors and influencing internal psychological factors.
13. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
D. Kirk Davidson The Importance of Context in Understanding CSR: China’s Labor Conditions as a Case Study
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This paper establishes six critical elements – history, political structures, religion, social customs, civil society openness, and level of economic development –needed to understand the context of corporate social responsibility in other countries and other cultures. Labor conditions in China are used as a case study.
14. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Jean-Pascal Gond, Céline Louche, Rieneke Slager, Carmen Juravle, Camilla Yamahaki The Institutional and Social Contruction of Responsible Investment
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This paper provides a summary of the symposium on the institutional and social construction of Responsible Investment (RI), held at the 22nd IABS conference. In the context of the symposium, we propose to move beyond the dominant focus on the financial impact of RI to consider the potential of emergent institutional and sociological perspectives to explain the practices and concepts related to RI. In doing so, our aim is to explore in greater detail the current changes in the RI infrastructure and the impact of these changes on wider issues of corporate sustainability and social responsibility.
15. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Sefa Hayibor, David M. Wasieleski Preferences Concerning Moral Development of Co-Workers
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Because an organization member’s degree of cognitive moral development (CMD) can be expected to influence his or her decisions and behaviour, in this paper we investigate the idea that that employees might prefer to supervise, work with, or work under others of particular levels or stages of CMD. We surveyed undergraduate business students in order to identify typical CMD preferences for co-workers and test preliminary hypotheses concerning possible influences on those preferences. Majorities of subjects expressed preferences for conventional level work peers and subordinates but postconventional superiors, which could augur a lack of congruence between what subordinates typically desire of their superiors and how those superiors are likely to actually behave.
16. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Robin T. Byerly Combating Modern Slavery: What can Business Do?
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It is argued in this paper that the contemporary issue of modern slavery is one of meaningful relevance to today’s business, particularly multinational corporations. For a number of theoretical and pragmatic reasons, including corporate social responsibility, global corporate citizenship, corporate power and innovative capability, the issue should resonate with, and draw response from, modern business. Further, several suggestions are made as to how business organizations and their leaders can effectively aid in combating modern slavery.
17. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Deborah L. Kidder, William P. Smith Slave to Facebook? How Technology is Changing the Balance Between Right to Privacy and Right to Know
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Have social media sites like Facebook become such a significant part of our social fabric that people face negative consequences for not joining and sharing? What role does a right to privacy play in circumstances where self-disclosure is the norm? We surveyed students about teammate preferences for team members based on information availability and Facebook membership. Students report a strong preference for teammates for whom there is information and Facebook participation.
18. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Michaela Haase Workshop: Embedded Capitalism and Business Ethics Education
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I give a short report on the origin of the International Working Group on Business Ethics Education (IWBEE) the group’s workshop sessions at the IABSconference. Building on the discussions throughout these workshop sessions, I outline how IWBEE’s perspective on business ethics education can be related to analytical perspectives from anthropology and economics.
19. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Jeanne M. Logsdon, John F. Mahon The BP Oil Disaster: Critical Insights and Lessons for Management and Organizational Reputation
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This paper develops a two-part model of the crucial roles that episodic memory and perceptual filters play in responses to organizational crisis. We examine thecascading impacts of episodic memory, the types of filters that shape stakeholder responses to crisis, and subsequent impacts on reputation. A sound wave analogy is developed to understand the complexity of organizational crisis. The model is partially applied to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster.
20. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2011
Frank G. A. de Bakker, Iina Hellsten, Anne M. Kok Activists and Business: Examining Networks and Tactics
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This paper contains an exploratory study of networks of activist groups operating versus firms to impact norms on corporate social responsibility. It providessome initial examinations of using webmetrics to trace activist networks and tactics. We conducted an empirical study of an organization that acts like the proverbial “spider in the web” in activist networks in the Netherlands: SOMO, the Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations. Mapping such an organization, in which networks on several themes related to CSR are coordinated, forms a useful entry point for further research.