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1. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
B. S. Ukraintsev Scientific Philosophy and Methods of Science
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Scientific philosophy serves as a general methodological guide in the development of methods of sciences. It represents the pole of interaction of methods, from which originates the trend of interaction as a whole towards increasing concreteness of scientific methods. Concretization of the philosophical method in the methods of science enriches scientific philosophy. There is the other way influence: the development of methods of science provides material for new generalizations of scientific philosophy.
2. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
V. V. Tselishchev The Nature of Numbers and the Interpretation of Quantifiers
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The problem of alternative models which arises at the explication of theory of numbers within the set theory is under discussion in this paper. The conceptions of W. Quine, P. Benacerraf and N. White are discussed here in this connection. The new solution of the above problem is suggested which is a modification of Benacerraffs conception through accepting substitutional interpretation of quantifiers. The consequences of admitting the substitutional interpretation are discussed in the paper which relate to the problems of genuine progression, counting and contemporary version of Pythgoreism.
3. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Adam Urbanek The Meaning of Natural Selection and Reductionism in Evolutionary Biology
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There were only a few attempts at reduction of the Darwinian principle of natural selection to physicochemical terms. The best substantiated are views of M. Eigen (1972). He has defined natural selection in terms of kinetics of biochemical reactions responsible for selfreproduction of information carriers in biosystems. A view is advanced here that equations propose by Eigen are inadequate to describe the action of Darwinian natural selection. They offer only an informational and biophysical paraphrase of the so-called Non-Darwinian selection neglecting survival and adaptation as indispensable effects of Darwinian natural selection.
4. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Georges Uscatescu La cybernétique devant la 'mort de la metaphysique'
5. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
V. Weidemann Cosmology: Science or Speculation?
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The philosophical implications of recent results in observational cosmology, especially concerning the evolutionary nature of our Universe and its high degree of isotropy, and of the possible existence of black holes, are discussed in the context of established or more recently proposed cosmological principles. We emphasize the borderline problem between science and speculation. We expect that scientifically 'admitted' questions will be more restricted in the future, whereas some philosophical concepts applied to the Universe might loose their exclusivity.
6. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Marx W. Wartofsky Is Science Contemporary Rationality?
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The question which I raise in this paper—"Is Science contenporary rationality?"—is entended to place the issue in an historical context.That is to say: rationality has a history. Modem science, I will argue is the dominant contenporary form of this rationality, as a matter of fact. The ceritical question is then: what normative claim does contenporary science make for this dominant position? Can contenporary science be understood as a historical form of rationality which has superseded earlier forms, and which itself has historical limitations? I compare the mathematical model of scientific rationality of seventeenth century science with that of contenporary science, and consider whether there are norms of rationality which remain invariant through historical change.
7. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Donald Phillip Verene On Rhetoric and Imagination as Kinds of Knowledge
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Since Descartes and Locke, theory of knowledge and the concept of rationality itself have been closely allied with the sciences, common sense, and empirical understanding. I argue: (1) that theory of knowledge must be extended to theory of myth, to a theory of the origin of consciousness understood in cultural terms, rather than purely logical or metaphysical terms; and (2) that this understanding of origin involves an understanding of the fundamental relationship between rationality and two forms of mind which have traditionally be defined out of the sphere of knowledge—rhetoric and imagination. The argument that I make is based in part on an interpretation of Vico's New Science.
8. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Horst Wessel Das Existenzprädikat und der Universalienstreit
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Ein Lösung des Universalienstreites setzt voraus: 1) den aufbau either logischen Terminitheorie und die exakte Unterscheidung verschiedener Typen von Termini; 2) eine Definition des Existenzprädikates füf verschiedene Typen von Termini. Die drste Aufgabe wird im vorliegenden Beitrag als gelöst vorausgesetzt. ausgehend von einer außerlogischen Erklärung des Prädikates der empirischen Existenz für einfache singuläre Subjekttermini wird ein Definitionssystem des Prädikates der Existenz für verschiedene Typen von Subjekttermini angegeben.
9. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Caroline Whitbeck Etiology and the Etiologic Agent
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It is argued there are features which distinguish causal conditions from necessary or sufficient conditions in general; that causal conditions are those which serve our instrumental interests, i.e., interests in producing or preventing states of affairs. It is further argued that the context of our instrumental interests determines what causal condition is designated as "the cause" in scientific contexts. It is argued that this is true of the health sciences in particular and the particular instrumental interests characteristic of the health sciences are further shown to govern the choice of what causal condition of a disease is accorded the status of etiologic agent.
10. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Ádám Wirth L'interpretation philosophique du determinisme social et la philosophie social scientifique
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Les rapports entre le caractère scientifique de la philosophie sociale et sa fonction axiologique, normative, semblent représenter un antinomie éternelle. Pour l'auteur, la philosophie matérialiste dialecquite contient une interprétation philosophique conséquente du déterminisme social, qu'il convient de démarquer aussi bien des conceptions indéterministes, que du déterminisme unilatéral, mécanique et métaphysique, ainsi que du fatalisme historique.
11. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Nina S. Yulina Images of Science, Pluralism of Metaphysical Theories and Rationality
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In the paper a task is formulated to explain the pluralism of forms of metaphysics proceeding with the thesis of overstating in these forms of the diverse aspects of the image of science and of the. difference between the latter and the real content of the scientific knowledge. The author believes that every objective philosophy should try to reach the ideal of dialectical unity of knowledge.
12. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Dieter Wittich Eine historische Anmerkung zu heutigen Gegensätzen bei der philosophischen Beurteilung des Verhältnisses von Bewußtsein und Umwelt
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Ausgehend von dem von J. Müller 1826 entdeckten Gesetz der sog. spezifischen Sinnesenergie werden gegensätzliche philosophische Deutungen desselben vorgeführt. Es wird jene Interpretation besonders beachtet, die zu agnostizistischen Konsequenzen führte. Das Beharrungsvermögen dieser philosophischen Deutung wird gesellschaftlich erklärt, ebenso der Umstand, daß sie später für viele weitere Erkenntnismittel Imitiert wurde.
13. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Gerhard Zecha Zur philosophischen Begründung pädagogischer Normen
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In diesem Beitrag werden zunächst die Begriffe "Norm”, "pädagogische Norm" und "Begründung” geklärt. Im Lichte dieser deflatorischen Präzisierungen wird herausgearbeitet, was die Philosophie zur Begründung pädagogischer Normen beitragen kann. Die Diskussion bezieht sich dabei auf meta-ethische Erörterungen, auf logische Klärungen (Folgerungsbegriff), auf den Begriff der Gültigkeit von Normen (Begriff der Richtigkeit von Mischsätzen) sowie schließlich auf das sog. Zweck-Mittel-Denken Im Begründungszusammenhang erzieherisch gemeinter Sollensforderungen. Insgesamt wird damit auch zu zeigen versucht, was die Philosophie bei der Begründung pädagogischer Normen nicht zu leisten Imstande ist, d.h. welche Aufgaben hiebei der Pädagogik selbst zufallen.
14. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 2
Mary-Barbara Zeldin The Factuality of Values
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The distinction of fact and value and the problems entailed by it are concerns only for modern, Western thought. The distinction is supported by Kant, who, however, also attempts to solve its consequent problems. His first attempt is made by arguing that the standard of value is itself a fact. This brings fact and value together, but only in an intelligible world. Kant's second attempt is found in the third Critique in the argument that man, as both rational and animal, must view the world in teleological terms; so doing advances the task of science, finds support in objects of natural beauty, and leads to the creation of beauty in art. Thus, ultimately, the highest complete good, a world under moral laws is itself seen as in fact really possible as the final goal of human creative artistic activity.
15. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Emanoil Ancuta Logik, Ontologie und Universalienstreit Heute
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Die Erkenntnis wird nur durch die Schöpfung (nicht ex nihilo, sondern cum fundamento in re) der Universalien durch das Denken möglich. Trotz seiner Originalität (= Widerspiegelung des Wirklichen sub specie universalitatis et essentiae) hat das logisch Universelle eine Korrespondenz in der objektiven Welt, wo es sich durch Wiederholung derselben ontischen Strukturen befindet und wo es wahrscheinlich eine der Grundstrukturen ist.
16. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Alwin Diemer Vorwort/Preface/Foreward
17. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Inhaltsverzeichnis/Table des matières/Table of contents
18. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
19. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Zdzislaw Augustynek Absolute Relational Time
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The definition of absolute relational time in the Special Theory of Relativity/STR/ is analysed. According to it time is the set of events partially ordered by the relation absolutely earlier than, i.e. independent of arbitrary inertial reference System. This definition has a few advantages: it extracts and expresses the absolute aspect of time in STR, it suggests a possibility of its application in the General Theory of Relativity and so on.
20. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
L.M. Arkhangelsky The Nature of Moral Norms and the Dialectics of their Development
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The essence and development of moral norms is connected with the dialectics of the direct and inverse relationship between the real and the necessary. Moral norms reflect the need to harmonize interpersonal relations and the conditions of human existence. The historical changes in the need and the conditions cause some moral norms to die out and new ones to appear. The objective criteria of moral values at all stages of historical development are the interests of social progress. The all-round humanization of social relations is possible only on the basis of socioeconomic, political and ideological transformations.